2019-06-12 16:17来源:互联网作者:上海管理员




You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Alexander Henderson (1831-1913)

Born in Scotland, Henderson emigrated to Canada in 1855 and became a well-known landscape photographer



Alexander Henderson was born in Scotland in 1831 and was the son of a successful merchant.His grandfather, also called Alexander, had founded the family business, and later became the first chairman of the National Bank of Scotland. The family had extensive landholdings in Scotland. Besides its residence in Edinburgh, it owned Press Estate, 650 acres of farmland about 35 miles southeast of the city. The family often stayed at Press Castle, the large mansion on the northern edge of the property, and Alexander spent much of his childhood in the area, playing on the beach near Eyemouth or fishing in the streams nearby.

Alexander Henderson181年出生于苏格兰,是一位成功商人的儿子。他的祖父也叫Alexander,建立了家族企业,之后成为苏格兰国民银行的任主席。整个家族在苏格兰拥有大量土地。除了在爱丁堡的住宅外,还在该市东南方向约35英里外拥有名为 PressEstate的650英亩农田。他们有时也住在 Press estate北部边缘处的一座名为 Press Castle的公馆, Alexander在那儿度过了大部分的童年时光:在临近艾茅斯的海滩玩耍,或者在附近的溪流里钓鱼。


Even after he went to school at Murcheston Academy on the outskirts of Edinburgh, Henderson returned to Press at weekends. In 1849 he began a three-year apprenticep to become an accountant. Although he never liked the prospect of a business career, he stayed with it to please his family. In October 1855, however, he emigrated to Canada with his wife Agnes Elder Robertson and they settled in Montreal.

甚至在进入爱丁堡郊区的 Murcheston学院读书后, Henderson周末也会回到 Press。1849年,他开始了为期3年的学徒生涯,成为一名准会计师。虽然他从未喜欢过经商,但为了让家人高兴,他仍坚持学习。然而,在1855年10月,他和妻子 Agnes Elder Robertson移居加拿大,并在蒙特利尔定居。


Henderson learned photography in Montreal around the year 1857 and quickly took it up as a serious amateur. He became a personal friend and colleague of the Scottish- Canadian photographer William Notman. The two men made a photographic excursion to Niagara Falls in 1860 and they cooperated on experiments with magnesium flares as a source of artificial light in 1865. They belonged to the same societies and were among the founding members of the Art Association of Montreal. Henderson acted as chairman of the association's first meeting, which was held in Notman's studio on 11 January 1860.

大约在1857年, Henderson在蒙特利尔学习摄影,并很快成为一名狂热的业余爱好者。他成为苏格兰裔加拿大摄影师 William notman的私人好友和同事。1860年,他们进行了一次到尼亚加拉大瀑布的摄影之旅;1865年,他们共同试验将镁粉照明作为人造光源。他们参加相同的协会,并成为蒙特利尔艺术协会的创始成员。 Henderson作为主席主持了这个协会的次会议,该会议于1860年1月11日在 Notman的工作室举行。


In spite of their friendship, their styles of photography were quite different. While Notman's landscapes were noted for their bold realism, Henderson for the first 20 years of his career produced romantic images, showing the strong influence of the British landscape tradition. His artistic and technical progress was rapid and in 1865 he published his first major collection of landscape photographs. The publication had limited circulation (only seven copies have ever been found), and was called Canadian Views and Studies. The contents of each copy vary significantly and have proved a useful source for evaluating Henderson 's early work.

尽管他们是好友,但两人的摄影风格大相径庭。 Notman的风景摄影因大胆的现实主义而闻名,而 Henderson前20年拍摄的作品充满浪漫气息,展示了英国风景摄影传统的强烈影响。他在艺术性和技术性上进步很快,并于1865出版了部大型风景摄影作品集。此作品集发行量有限(迄今只找到7本),名为《加拿大风景与研》每一本的内容都迥然不同,这是评估 Henderson早期作品的有用来源。


In 1866, he gave up his business to open a photographic studio, advertising himself as a portrait and landscape photographer. From about 1870 he dropped portraiture to specialize in landscape photography and other views. His numerous photographs of city life revealed in street scenes, houses, and markets are alive with human activity, and although his favourite subject was landscape he usually composed his scenes around such human pursuits as farming the land, cutting ice on a river, or sailing down a woodland stream. There was sufficient demand for these types of scenes and others he took depicting the lumber trade, steamboats and waterfalls to enable him to make a living. There was little competing hobby or amateur photography before the late 1880s because of the time-consuming techniques involved and the weight of the equipment. People wanted to buy photographs as souvenirs of a trip or as gifts, and catering to this market, Henderson had stock photographs on display at his studio for mounting, framing, or inclusion in albums.



Henderson frequently exhibited his photographs in Montreal and abroad, in London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Paris, New York, and Philadelphia. He met with greater success in 1877 and 1878 in New York when he won first prizes in the exhibition held by E and H T Anthony and Company for landscapes using the Lambertype process. In 1878 his work won second prize at the world exhibition in Paris.

Henderson时常在蒙特利尔和其他国外城市如伦敦、爱丁堡、都柏林、巴黎、纽约和费城展出摄影作品。1877年和1878年,他在纽约获得更大的成功,当时他以 Lambertype摄影法在 E and H T Anthony and company举办的风景摄影展中荣获名。1878年,他的作品在巴黎世界展览中赢得第二名。


In the 1870s and 1880s Henderson travelled widely throughout Quebec and Ontario, in Canada, documenting the major cities of the two provinces and many of the villages in Quebec. He was especially fond of the wilderness and often travelled by canoe on the Blanche, du Lievre, and other noted eastern rivers. He went on several occasions to the Maritimes and in 1872 he sailed by yacht along the lower north shore of the St Lawrence River. That same year, while in the lower St Lawrence River region, he took some photographs of the construction of the lntercolonial Railway. This undertaking led in 1875 to a commission from the railway to record the principal structures along the almost-completed line connecting Montreal to Halifax. Commissions from other railways followed. In 1876 he photographed bridges on the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway between Montreal and Ottawa. In 1885 he went west along the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as far as Rogers Pass in British Columbia, where he took photographs of the mountains and the progress of construction.

19世纪70年代和80年代, Henderson广泛游历了加拿大的魁北克省和安大略省,用影像记录了两省主要城市和魁北克省的许多村庄。他格外喜欢原野,经常乘独木舟漂流在白河、野兔河和其他的东部河流上。他去过加拿大滨海诸省好几次,1872年,他曾乘游艇沿圣劳伦斯河下游的北部沿岸航行。同年,在圣劳伦斯河下游地区,他拍摄了几张殖民地际铁路的施工照。他的这一举动促使铁路方委托他拍摄记录蒙特利尔和哈利法克斯之间几近完工的铁路线的主要结构。随后,其他铁路的类似任务接踵而至。1876年,他拍摄了连接蒙特利尔和渥大华的魁北克一蒙特利尔一渥大华一西部铁路的桥梁。1885年,他沿加拿大太平洋铁路向西直到不列颠哥伦比亚省罗杰斯隘口,沿途拍摄了一些山脉和工程进度的照片。


In 1892 Henderson accepted a full-time position with the CPR as manager of a photographic department which he was to set up and administer. His duties included spending four months in the field each year. That summer he made his second trip west, photographing extensively along the railway line as far as Victoria. He continued in this post until 1897, when he retired completely from photography.

1892年, Henderson接受了加拿大太平洋铁路公司提供的全职工作,担任由他成立和管理的摄影部门的经理一职。工作职责要求他每年在野外待4个月。那年夏天,他第二次西行直到维多利亚市,沿途拍摄了大量铁路沿线的照片。他一直担任这个职位直到1897年从摄影界完全退休。


When Henderson died in 1913, his huge collection of glass negatives was stored in the basement of his house. Today collections of his work are held at the National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, and the McCord Museum of Canadian History, Montreal.

1913年, Henderson去世时,他家的地下室里储存了他的大量玻璃底片。如今他的作品集保存在位于渥太华的加拿大国家档案馆和位于蒙特利尔的麦考得加拿大历史博馆。
















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