摘要：上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2017年5月208日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2017年5月208日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
Build a Medieval Castle
A Michel Guyot, owner and restorer of Saint Fargeau castle in France, first had the idea of building a 13th-century style fortress following the discovery that the 15th-century red
bricks of his castle obscured the stone walls of a much older stronghold. His dream was to build a castle just as it would have been in the Middle Ages, an idea which some found
mildly amusing and others dismissed as outright folly. However, Maryline Martin - project director - was inspired by the exciting potential for the venture to regenerate the region. It took several months to bring together and mobilise all the various different partners: architects, archaeologists and financial backers. A site in the heart of Guédelon forest was found: a site which offered not only all the resources required for building a castle - a stone quarry, an oak forest and a water supply - but in sufficient quantities to satisfy the demands of this gigantic site. The first team started work and on June 20th 1997 the first stone was laid.
B Unlike any other present-day building site, Michel Guyot’s purpose is clear, he warmly welcomes members of the public to participate. The workers’ role is to demonstrate and explain, to a wide audience, the skills of our forefathers. Stone quarrying, the building of vaulted ceilings, the blacksmith’s work and the raising of roof timbers are just some of the activities which visitors can witness during a visit to Guédelon. The workers are always on hand to talk about their craft and the progress of the castle. Each year 60,000 children visit Guédelon with their schools. The site is an excellent educational resource, bringing to life the history of the Middle Ages. Guided tours are tailored to the school curriculum and according to age groups: activity trails for primary school children and interactive guided tours for secondary school children. Pupils of all ages have the opportunity to follow in the footsteps of medieval stonemasons by taking part in a stonecarving workshop or discover the secrets of the medieval master-builders at the geometry workshop.
C Workers in the Burgundy region of France are building a 13th century castle. They’re not restoring an old castle. They’re actually building a new old castle. See the builders are constructing it from scratch. The craftsmen have been working for nearly ten years now but they’re not even halfway done yet. That’s because they’re using only medieval tools and techniques. The World’s Gerry Hadden takes us to the site of what will be the Guedelon Castle. Another reason said by Jean Francois, a member of Guedelon stone cutter’s guild, for eight hours a day he bangs on a 13th century chisel with a 13th century iron mallet.
D The progress of construction has to give way to tourists side for their visits. The visitors from 2010, however unsightly they may be, are vital to the project. The initial funding came not from pillaging the local peasantry but from regional councils, the European Union and large companies. For the last 10 years, Guédlon, 100 miles southeast of Paris, has funded itself from its entrance fees. Last year it had a record 300,000 visitors, who paid almost €2.5m, making it the second most-visited site in Burgundy. The most-visited site was the Hospice de Beaune, a beautiful 15th- century almshouse built 600 years before, or, if you prefer, 200 years “after”, Guédelon.
E Limestone is found in the construction of various local buildings, from the great and prestigious edifice of Ratilly castle to the more modest poyaudines houses. This stone contains 30-40% iron oxide; this can make it extremely hard to extract and dress. Having studied the block in order to determine and anticipate the natural fault lines of the stone, the quarrymen first carve a series of rectilinear holes into the block. Iron wedges are then hammered into this line of holes. The shockwaves produced by the quarrymen’s sledgehammers cause the stone to split along a straight line. The highest quality blocks are dressed to produce lintels, voussoirs, corbels, ashlars etc. The medium quality blocks are roughly shaped by the stonecutters and used on the uncoursed curtain walls, and as facing stones on the castle’s inner walls. There are water-filled clay pits in the forest. Clay is taken from these pits, cleaned and pugged. It is then shaped in wooden moulds to form bricks. After the bricks have been left to air-dry, they are fired in a woodfired kiln for about 12 hours, at roughly 1000°c.
F The mortar is the “glue” used to bind the castle’s stones. It is made up of precise doses of lime, sand and water. The people working there wear the tunics, skirts and headgear that they might have worn then, but they wear these over jeans and shoes with reinforced toes. They mix their mortar primarily as they would have done then, using sand they dig themselves, but they are not allowed to use the extremely effective hot lime from medieval days, because of its toxicity, and so they add a modern chemical ingredient instead, to achieve the same effect. Workers in the Mid Age obviously were unaware of it and some died earlier by inhaling toxic gas. And so, we met many wonderful people who do not pretend to be anything but modern human beings practicing an old technique and finding out what it would have felt like, as much as possible, to do it with only the resources of an older time.
G We also learned that even if there is a straight lintel across a doorway, you will usually find an arch of stones built into the wall differently. Because of the physics of an arch, which channels the weight above it down into whatever is supporting it at each side instead of pressing down in the middle, this helps to take a lot of the weight off of the lintel itself, whether it is free standing or buried in the wall against the impact of warfare. The arch is the strongest element for spanning space in stone architecture. This is why, in ancient ruins, you will often find the entire wall missing, and the arched windows and doorways still standing, in beautiful patterns against the sky.
Questions & Answers
Questions 1-4 True/False/Not Given
1. One of the reasons to build the castle is to make history more accessible to the general public. TRUE (原文描述了建城堡的4个原因:考古;发展旅游业;拯救失业;让群众更好的接触古代历史)
2. Guyot is reluctant to abandon his original ideas in favor of a more realistic project. NOT GIVEN (原文有提及Guyot最初想法不太可能实现，另一个人就提出了一个更现实的想法，但没提及Guyot是否不情愿。)
3. Lime-bumer did not live for a long time because their body were damaged by. theextreme heat duringthe process. FAL SE (原文描述lime-bumer寿命短，因为加热过程释放出来的毒气)
4. Bricks were laid in different ways to lessen the impact of an attack. TRUE ( 原文提及第%一层先水平铺，第二层垂直铺，如果不这样，就不能很好的抗冲击)
The list below are given reasons why the castle need long time to build.
A. the reluctance ofworkers committing themselves to the project.
B. the lengthy training time which the workers have totake
C. having to abide to the modern employment regulations
D. the tourists who come and visit
E. the inability ofcommittees to reach any decisions
F. the unskilled workers employed
G. everything has to be done by hand
Questions 8-13 Complete the flow chart using no more than two words.
How the limestone is extracted and used
Pubic art progams. research update
A Researcher Howard Spector suggests that active art experiences beneft all age groups. by providing indviduals with the means. to. freely. and creatively, express themselves. Self-expression, in tum, promotes indviduality. bolsters selfconfidence and improve? Motivation and atiude s towards academic performance.
B Communities committed to providing opportunities for experiencing considered more livable because they. are attractive to businesses and industry and they offer a higher
quality of life for residents (Riley 2002). Tourism is strongly linked to art - art activities are believed to stimulate tourism in a community, and vice versa At-related tourism
generates tourists and revenue, attracts high-income, consumers, extends the tourist season andis a 'green' form ofthe industry (Hughes 2000)
C In recognition of these and other benefts, communities are finding many ways to ensure that the public is providedwith opportunities to experience art. Public art programs
are one. way. These programs are typically, administered by govemment, with commissions or mandates works ofart for dsplay in public spaces.
D Despite the significant benefts that art participation can offer to individuals and communities, only 35 percent of American adult population visit museums or galleies a least once during the year, and only about 25 percent attend a live performance (Bradshaw 1998)
E The RAND findings reveal that disindined perceive themselves as being uncomfortable or unfamiliar with art. This dsposition might occur among people who do not value art and who have not received art education, or who perceive themselves as unsophisticated or lacking skill to participate.
F One recreation organization working to make sure children get exposed to art is the Boys and Giris Clubs of America, which offer two innovative programs; The National Photography Program and the National Fine Arts Exhibit. Both are designed to get promotes technologically produced, including video and computer graphics, but primanly focuses on photography.
Questions & Answers
Questions 14-19 List of Headings
14. Paragraph A: Arts influence on individual's atitudes and well-being
15. Paragraph B: Community tourism and travel efect caused by arts
16. Paragraph C: How to have access to public arts
17. Paragraph D. Different art activities
18. Paragraph E: Certain reasons why few people participate art activities
19. Paragraph F: Two approaches to encourage art participation
Questions 20 23 Matching Statements
20. How art participation cause crime behavior for juvenile people.
21. Increase community wealth by art actites.
22. High incomes come from art appreciation and tourism
23. Art works sometimes are encouraging and persuasive.
Questions 24 26 Summary (Fill in the Blanks)
24. Few people jain art paticipation simply because they cannot affordthe cost, have poor planning schedule, or just because they have no time.
25. Individuals with a greater number of childhood art are more likely to have higher rates of participation as adults.
26. The program provides club members with the opportunity to achieve personal growth
and receive artistic recognition through instruction in photography.
A段: Ltle is known about the incidence ofliteracy and the rural communities澳洲的文盲率没有factual记录。
B段: The dfferences between the rural areas and the urban areas.
C段: The survey in 1989 about the infuence of the low literacy on the working condtions.
D段: The differences between male and female in terms of the literacy.
E段: Working in the industial factories is very popular in some areas.
F段: The differences between the children in the rural and in the urban areas.
Questions & Answers
Questions 38 40 Mutiple choice
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