摘要：上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2017年4月8日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2017年4月8日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
Media literacy of children: a review of research literature
P1. This document provides a comprehensive review of the academic literature relating to children's and young people's media literacy. It focuses primarily on television, radio, the internet and mobile telephony; and specifically addresses the various barriers to, and enablers of, media literacy.
P2. Children develop media literacy even in the absence of explicit attempts to encourage and promote it. Accordingly, the document begins by exploring the development of the three dimensions contained in Ofcom's definition of media literacy: 'the ability to access, understand and create communications in a variety of contexts'.
P3. In terms of access, the literature suggests that children and young people already. possess quite high levels of functional literacy- that is, the skills and competencies needed to gain access to media content, using the available technologies and associated software. Older children are generally aware of regulatory mechanisms and systems of guidance, and take these into account in seeking to make their own decisions. The large majority of young people show some awareness of risks relating to sexual dangers on the internet; although they are less aware of potential financial risks. Several studies in this area conclude that education in media literacy may be a more effective strategy than blocking or filtering.
P4. In terms of understanding, there is an extensive literature relating to the development of children's understanding of television. This literature suggests that children's awareness of
areas such as television 'language'， the difference between representation and reality, and the persuasive role of advertising, develops both as a function of their increasing knowledge of the world, and as a result of their broader cognitive and social development. Children also learn to cope with potentially unwanted or upsetting emotional responses, and to make critical judgments about areas such as television violence, by employing forms 0 media literacy. It is important to emphasise that these areas apply just as much to fictional material as to factual material; and that critical understanding goes hand-in-hand with the development of aesthetic and emotional responses to media of all kinds. There is considerably less research about how children interpret, evaluate and respond to other media, including the various forms of content found on the internet.
P5. By contrast, when it comes to creativity, there has been less academic research relating to 'older' media such as video and analogue radio than to new media， particularly the internet. Research here suggests that there is considerable potential for media to be used as means of communication and self-expression, not least by socially disadvantaged groups; that
creative involvement in media production (particularly in the context of education) can make an important contribution to the development of critical understanding; and that new media such as online gaming and mobile telephony provide possibilities for new forms of interaction.
P6. Among the barriers to media literacy are several inter-related factors, of which social class and economic status are the most well-established. These barriers limit children's access to the internet, although not to established media such as radio 0 television. Ofcom The media literacy of children and young people Less is known about other potential barriers such as disability and ethnicity, or about the role of individual dispositions or motivations. It is important to recognise that such barriers may affect the quality of access as well as the quantity - for example, in terms of the available functionality of the technology, the location and level of support for use. There is evidence that access to the internet in schools remains often very limited. It should also be acknowledged that different social groups may have different orientations towards particular media - or different forms of 'cultural capital' - that may influence the nature and quality of access.
P7. Potential enablers of media literacy include parents, teachers (both in schools and in informal educational settings) and other agencies such as broadcasters and regulators. Research suggests that parental mediation can play an important role in developing younger children's media literacy, for example in understanding the relationships between representation and reality. However, the role of parents depends upon broader beliefs about child-rearing, and many parents do not play as great a role as they like to suggest.
Meanwhile, education about the media has a long history, at least in secondary schools in the UK, although it remains a marginal aspect of the compulsory curriculum and is rarely found in primary schools. There is a growing body of evidence about the effectiveness of particular teaching strategies, both in respect of the 'understanding' and 'creativity' aspects, although there has been lttle sustained or systematic research into the learning potential of children at different ages. Media education is also developing in the informal sector, although there has been lttle sustained evaluation of such work.
P8. The review provides an indication of several important gaps in the literature. These include specific media (such as radio, mobile phones and online gaming) and particular population groups (such as younger children, those with disabilities, and ethnic minority groups). There is a particular need for research about children's ability to evaluate internet content; about their awareness of new commercial strategies in the media; about media production in the home; and about learning progression in media education. Of the three areas in Ofcom's definition, 'creativity' is by far the least well-researched. New technologies and media forms will also pose new challenges and demands in terms of media literacy, so it is important that research in this field is regularly updated. There is a case here for more sharing of research findings and methodologies between academic and industry researchers.
P9. In terms of methodology, the review finds that a great deal of research in the fleld is based on self-reporting, and recommends that there should be more observational studies that explore how media literacy is used in everyday life. In relation to education, there need to develop new approaches to assessing the effectiveness of media education in influencing media use outside the classroom. Researchers also need to address some of the ethical dfficulties, particularly in respect of research on new media.
P10. Finally, the. review reminds us that media literacy is multi-dimensional. The nature and extent of the media literacy that individuals need and develop depends very much on the purposes for which they use the media in the first place. Different social groups may also develop and require different forms of media literacy in line with their motivations and preferences in media use.
Questions & Answers
Media literacy involves:
--having (1) access to communication
--more children can use technology to locate media content
--older children can use regulatory mechanisms
-children cannot recognize the (2) financial risks
There is an extensive literature relating to children and (3)
-Children can develop the knowledge of the world and (4)
-Children can handle bad emotions and (5) critical judgment
Research mainly focus on (6) new media rather than old media
--development of critical understanding
--many kinds of (7) interaction
Questions 8-13 T/F/NG
8. When understanding the barrier of media literacy, considerable research has been done (F)
9. Support from parents affect children's quality of media literacy (T)
10. Children can be badly affected by the mobile phone (NG)
11. More research is available on media than creatity (T)
12. Too many observational studies have been done (F)
13. The reason why people use internet will affect one's media literacy (T)
A 1. When it comes to a reason why people are fat. Different experts have different theories. 2.“Everyone subscribes to their own theory",says Robert Berkowitz. 3. There are different
explanation for these theories.
B 1. Diet is likely to be a factor that explains why people become fat. Is there a better way to diet?
2. There is a study compared with two groups of adults. One group can secret high levels of insulin whereas the other can secret low levels of insulin.
3. And the successful outcome is that the high-insulin-secretors in the low-load diet. They lost nearly 13 pounds and kept it off.
4. There is a new idea that people don't lose weight by choosing the small fries or taking a lttle walk every other day, says Deirdre Barrett. There is information that 5000 successful weight-losers who have shed an average of 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years.
5. The aim of losing weight shouldn't be getting thin, but getting healthy.
6. Losing even 10 pounds decreases risk of diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure, says Jeffrey Friedman.
C 1. Obesity may be as a result of inheritance, says Teresa Hillier.
2. If a woman has high blood-sugar levels while she is pregnant,her children are more likely to be overweight or obese，according to a test.
3. Numerous studies in both animals and humans have shown that a mother's obesity directly increases her child's risk for weight gain.
D 1. A kind of virus also may lead to your fat. A scientist called Nikhil Dhurandhar is responsible for the theory.
2. He discovered a virus, called SMAM-1, caused chicken being fat although this virus didn't directly inject into human body.
3. He later moved to the U.S. and found a new virus named AD-36 that is also responsible for people's fat because he injected this virus into different animals. And these animals were fat. 4. In his latest studies, he got a genethat is able to cut off AD-36 function.
5. Eventually, the aim of his study is to create a sort of vaccine that inhibits vaccine.
Questions & Answers
Questions 14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. a reference of diet can to some degree help lose weight. (B)
15. an example of a group of people who did not regain weight immediately after weight loss. (B)
16. an example of close relatives which can influence obesity (C)
17. a reference of many theories cannot precisely explain why people's fat. (A)
18. Pregnant mothers who are fat is likely to have babies who are overweight. (B)
19. Researchers can be divided into different groups with their own point view about weight loss. (E)
20. Losing weight can keep fit as well as getting thin. (C)
21. Small changes in life styles will not help in reducing much weight. (A)
22. A kind of virus is responsible for people's obesity (D)
A: Deirdre Battett
B: Teresa Hillier
C: Jeffrey Friedaman
D: Nikhil Dhurandhar
E: Robert Berkowitz
Questions 23-26填空one word and/or a number
In a clinic, a young doctor called Nikhil Dhurandhar claimed that a kind of virus is responsible for people's fat. For years, he careered out many experiments on 23. chickens instead of human.
And then he recognized a new virus named 24. AD-36 that proved to result in obesity. Besides, there is a new kind of 25. gene that can be separated as to block the effectiveness of the virus. In the future, the doctor is aiming at developing a new 26. vaccine that can fight against the virus
P1. Knowledge lives in lots of different forms over time. History recording was recorded through materials including movies or paper in the recent past. However, it is in the form of World Wide Web and other digital ways.
P2. Brewster Kahle founded Internet archive in May 1996 with Library of Congress. Saving the physical artifacts of information storage as a way to hedge against the uncertainty of the future.
P3. Archivists working on recording digital data and copyright issues with the publishers of original materials.
P4. Compact Disc is a form of material storing. Many archivists and studies focus on the preservation time of data on Compact Disc.
P5. It is necessary for materials to be recorded or stored from now on with limited lifetime of information on the network.
P6. Certain web areas can only be available to people with passport. Archivists attempt to replace materials every five years to assure that information can be accessible in the future.
P7. There are certain printed historical data loss nowadays. People have problems in finding primeval materials on the network.
Questions & Answers
Questions 27-31 Matching
27. The co-operation of archivist and private producers of printed items C
28. Outline of risks and potential benefits of internet archive B
29. A detailed description of storing methods of Internet archive_ F
30. The similarity of Internet archive and older methods D
31. Time length of information available on the Internet E
Questions 32-36 Multiple Choice
32. What's the difference between recording methods in the near past and in current community?
D. The channel by which communicate
33. The archive that BK set up
B. involve in recording of internet data
34. PL establish archive principles in order to
A. avoid digital data loss
35. NC refer to research to
C. the duration of materials on CD
36. PB maintains that have problems of
A. finding original copies on the Internet
Questions 37-40 Complete the summary
Many recordings are available now, including important 37.
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