2017-03-23 16:31来源:互联网作者:上海管理员




  更多真题解析,请:剑桥雅思11阅读解析 当然,还有烤鸭关心的剑11真题pdf下载


  An Introduction to Film Sound

  Though we might think of film as an essentially visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen, and is ultimately just as much the responsibility of the director. The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects. Topics which essentially refer to the three previously mentioned tracks are discussed below. They include dialogue, synchronous and asynchronous sound effects, and music.

  Let us start with dialogue. As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge. Perhaps this is because the very texture of a performer’s voice supplies an element of character.

  When voice textures fit the performer’s physiognomy and gestures, a whole and very realistic persona emerges. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft, but another human being struggling with life. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films. For example, in the highly successful science-fiction film 2001, little dialogue was evident, and most of it was banal and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the ‘inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe’.

  The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation; there is no time for audience reflection. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. This film presents pure escapism — largely due to its frenetic dialogue.

  Synchronous sound effects are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. For example, if the film portrays a character playing the piano, the sounds of the piano are projected. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the ‘click’ of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real, and the audience may only subconsciously note the expected sound. However, if the ‘click’ of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the ‘click’ with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense.

  Asynchronous sound effects, on the other hand, are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance, and they may also add to the realism of the film. For example, a film-maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance’s siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument; at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film’s city setting.

  We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence. We are aware that it is used to add emotion and rhythm. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and/or the characters depicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster.

  Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas.

  Film sound comprises conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. We need to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate an art form that sprang to life during the twentieth century — the modern film.



  Questions 14-18

  Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

  Write the correct letter in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.

  14 In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that

  A the director should plan the sound track at an early stage in filming.

  B it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films.

  C the music industry can have a beneficial influence on sound in film.

  D it is important for those working on the sound in a film to have sole responsibility for it.

  15 One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify

  A the importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities.

  B the audience’s wish that actors are visually appropriate for their roles.

  C the value of the actor having had similar feelings to the character.

  D the audience’s preference for dialogue to be as authentic as possible.

  16 In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that

  A audiences are likely to be critical of film dialogue that does not reflect their own experience.

  B film dialogue that appears to be dull may have a specific purpose.

  C filmmakers vary considerably in the skill with which they handle dialogue.

  D the most successful films are those with dialogue of a high quality.

  17 What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up Baby?

  A The plot suffers from the filmmaker’s wish to focus on humorous dialogue.

  B The dialogue helps to make it one of the best comedy films ever produced.

  C There is a mismatch between the speed of the dialogue and the speed of actions.

  D The nature of the dialogue emphasises key elements of the film.

  18 The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds

  A are often used to give the audience a false impression of events in the film.

  B may be interpreted in different ways by different members of the audience.

  C may be modified in order to manipulate the audience’s response to the film.

  D tend to be more significant in films presenting realistic situations.

  Questions 19-23

  Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

  In boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet, write

  TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

  FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

  NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

  19 Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music.

  20 Background music may anticipate a development in a film.

  21 Background music has more effect on some people than on others.

  22 Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film.

  23 Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them.

  Questions 24-26

  Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

  Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

  24 The audience’s response to different parts of a film can be controlled

  25 The feelings and motivations of characters become clear

  26 A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor

  A when the audience listens to the dialogue.

  B if the film reflects the audience’s own concerns.

  C if voice, sound and music are combined appropriately.

  D when the director is aware of how the audience will respond.

  E when the actor’s appearance, voice and moves are consistent with each other.


  Question 14

  答案: B

  关键词: first paragraph

  定位原文: 第1段整体内容

  解题思路: 本题考査考生是否能够读懂作者在段里表达的主要看法,很难使用此段中的某一句话来确定答案,需要考生读懂本段大意并对比四个选项内容,从而做出恰当选择。


  Question 15

  答案: A

  关键词: Humphrey Bogart

  定位原文: 第2段的第3、4句“Often with film characterization the audience perceives little…”

  解题思路: 题目问作者提到Humphrey Bogart的一个原因是为了证明什么。人名可以帮助考生轻松定位。只看包含Humphrey Bogart的一句,缺失了此段的上下文,也不易得出答案。B项说“观众希望演员在视觉上适合他们所扮演的角色”,也就是说希望演员的外貌特征符合角色描述,但本段反复提及的着眼点在于“性格特征”而非外貌;C项属于完全未被提及的信息;D项说“观众更倾向于对话要尽可能显得真实”,虽然本段确实意在解释“对话”在电影中所扮演的角色,但是并有明确说到它必须像真的,所以也不对。

  Question 16

  答案: B

  关键词: third paragraph

  定位原文: 第3段内容

  解题思路: A项说“如果电影对话不能反映观众自身经历,他们就有可能会持批评性态度”,未被提及的;C项说“电影制作者在如何处话的技巧上彼此有着极大的差別”,这个选项与原文中how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used vanes widely among films有一定相似之处,可能会给部分考生造成一定干扰。但仔细分辨之下不难看出,原文只说了“不同电影中对话的用法和用量有很大差別”,并未明确说是电影制作者使用技巧的差別,是干扰选项;D项说“最成功的电影是那些有着高质量对话的电影”,也是无中生有的信息。

  Question 17

  答案: D

  关键词: Bringing Up Baby

  定位原文: 第4段内容

  解题思路: 问的是关于Bringing Up Baby 这部电影说了什么,根据本段内容,作者说这部电影故意使用了又快又滑稽的对话形式来突出影片的荒诞风格。因此正确答案为选项D“对话的性质强化了影片中的关键元素。”A项说“由于电影制作人想要关注幽默对话而使情节受到了损害”;B项说“对话帮助这部电影成为了有史以来的喜剧电影之一”;C项说“对话的速度与动作的速度之间不匹配”。这三项内容在本段中都不曾被提及。

  Question 18

  答案: C

  关键词: ‘click’ of a door

  定位原文: 第5段第4句“For example, the 'click' of a door being opened…”

  解题思路: 题目问:作者提到了推门的“咔嗒”声来说明,模拟真实情况的声音_____。A项说“经常被用来让观众对影片中的事件产生错误印象”;B项说“可能会被观众中的不同成员按照不同的方式进行理解”;D项说“往往在那些展示现实场景的电影中显得更为重要”。这三项内容在本段不曾被提及。而C中“也有可能加以改变用来控制观众对电影的反应”是定位处的同义表达。

  Question 19

  答案: TRUE

  关键词: surprised, lacks, background music

  定位原文: 第7段的第1句“We are probably all familiar with…”

  解题思路: 定位处的so… as to 表示 “如此…以至于”,背景音乐无处不在,以至于观众必须注意到它的存在,和题目的“如果一部电影缺了背景音乐,观众有可能会感到奇怪。”是同义表达。

  Question 20

  答案: TRUE

  关键词: background music, anticipate, development

  定位原文:第7段倒数第2句“In addition, background music…”

  解题思路: 定位处说背景音乐通常预示着氛围变化,foreshadow 与may anticipate 是同义表达,题目中说“背景音乐有可能预示出一部电影中的情节发展”与定位原文是同义表达,因此答案为TRUE。

  Question 21


  关键词: background music, more effect than

  定位原文:第7段第3、4、5句“Usually not meant to be noticeable …”

  解题思路: 文中与题目有关的定位区域在第7段,文中说到,通常可能不是故意让人注意的,只是说背景音乐通常奠定了故事的基调,或者人物的感情态度,再者,预示氛围变化。而题目中却说背景音乐对一些人产生的效果比对另一些人所产生的效果更大。这样的信息在文中完全没有提及。所以答案只能是NG。

  Question 22

  答案: True

  关键词: background music, make certain connections

  定位原文: 第8段内容

  解题思路: 题目说背景音乐可以帮助观众在影片中(不同场景之间)找到某些关联,在阅读第8段第1句后,即可大致判断这个表述是True,如果觉得不够确信,再往后阅读,可以确定答案。

  Question 23

  答案: FALSE

  关键词: aware, background music, affecting

  定位原文: 第9段第4句“The effects of sound are often largely…”

  解题思路: 定位处已经明确说明声音的效果通常来说是非常微妙的,只是潜意识才能注意到。而题目说的是“观众往往会注意到背景音乐如何对他们产生影响。” 题目中用background music,原文中用了sound这个简单词,正文中所使用的effects一词与题干中affect的同义替换,对比内容,可知答案为FALSE。

  Question 24

  答案: C

  关键词: audience's response, can be controlled

  定位原文: 第1段第3、4句“The entire sound track consists of…”

  解题思路: 题目问的是观众对于影片中不同部分的反应可以在何种情况下被控制。难点在与理解原文的create desired effects,即是指“创造出(电影制作者)所想要达到的效果”,也就是希望去掌控或操控观众观影之后会产生什么样的反应。题目中的“must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases”就是C选项的“如果人的声音、其他声响和音乐进行了恰当混合的话”。

  Question 25

  答案: A

  关键词: feelings and motivations

  定位原文: 第2段第2句“As is the case with stage drama…”

  解题思路: 原文中“dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well”,可见是dialogue完成两个目标,一是讲述故事,二是表达人物感情和动机,很容易选到A:当观众听着对话的时候。

  Question 26

  答案: E

  关键词: character, real person, actor

  定位原文: 第3段第1句“When voice textures fit the performer's physiognomy…”

  解题思路: 定位原文处说到音质符合人物的外表,姿势,一个非常真实的人物形象就出来了。题目问的是“一个角色看似更像一个真实的人而非一位演员”,所以选项E“当演员的外貌、声音和动作彼此协调一致时”是正确选项。

















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