4008-125-888
暑假班活动
首页>托福考试备考专区>TPO阅读>托福TPO65阅读Passage 3完整原文

托福TPO65阅读Passage 3完整原文

2021-02-19 10:47来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:托福TPO试题基本所有参加托福考生必做试题,为更好服务于广大考生,上海新航道小编会及时的更新托福TPO试题信息,包括TPO试题、答案及解析等内容。在下文中小编整理了托福TPO65阅读Passage 3完整原文完整,希望对大家有所帮助,如在学习过程中有问题,可以加新航道上海学校专业老师微信(微信号shnc_2018)进行咨询。

托福TPO试题基本所有参加托福考生必做试题,在下文中上海新航道托福培训小编整理了托福TPO65阅读Passage 3完整原文,希望对大家有所帮助!


托福TPO65阅读Passage 3完整原文

Pastoral ism and Agriculture in Iran

Geographical constraints have had important consequences for the economy and society of Iran. Where rainfall is adequate, there are fertile valleys and grasslands suitable for grazing animals. However, since the natural vegetation tends to be sparse, it is difficult for such animals to remain in one place for any length of time. Thus nomadic pastoralism-keeping livestock (such as sheep and goats) by wandering from place to place-was one of the first and most persistent human economic activities to flourish in this area. This nomadic movement was often of the vertical variety, with people and animals moving from lowlands in wintertime to highlands in summer. The animals raised by the pastoralists provided not only food but also material for crafts such as the making of carpets, thick felt cloth, and tents. The pastoralists were typically organized into large tribal confederations capable of controlling the vast territories needed for maintaining their herds.

The tribes were a powerful social and political factor throughout Iranian history. The skills necessary for herding animals, hunting and chasing off predators, directing migrations, disciplining tribesmen, and protecting lands and animals from rivals could be easily adapted and directed toward military purposes as well. It was typically the tribes that produced the soldiers and rulers of the country and provided the power base for most of its dynasties Once established, governments needed to cultivate the support of friendly tribal groups and tried to control hostile tribes by combat, deportation, or forcible settlement. At the beginning of the twentieth century, approximately one- fourth of the population were tribal peoples, and they were a potent force in Iranian affairs. With the advent of mechanized armies in the 1930s, however, there were systematic efforts to break the power of the tribes and to coerce the tribal population into a sedentary way of life. These efforts have been largely successful, and the tribes are no longer so significant a force in either the Iranian economy or society. Less than 5 percent of the population now consists of nomadic pastoralists.

The aridity of the Iranian plateau retarded its agricultural development in comparison to adjacent regions such as Mesopotamia, which had great rivers to draw upon for a supply of water. Eventually, at some uncertain date probably about 26 centuries ago, there was a technological breakthrough that made it possible to farm crops outside the few oases, streams, and other places with sufficient rainfall for agriculture. This was the development of underground canals known as qanats. The qanat system took advantage of the natural slope (inclination) of the plateau basins. A well would be dug in the foothills to reach a water source, usually water from melting snow that had seeped underground. Then a sequence of wells and shafts connected by underground canals would be constructed to transport the water to an area suitable for cultivation where it could support the needs of one or more villages. The slope of the underground canals had to be controlled carefully to prevent erosion, and the interior surface of wells and shafts needed to be kept under constant maintenance to prevent them from collapsing.

■ Since the canals were underground, loss from evaporation was minimized. ■ Gravity provided the means of moving the water, so no mechanical energy was required to operate the system. ■ The numerous wells and shafts kept the length of the tricky underground canal short and facilitated repairs of each segment. ■ Built up over the centuries, the system eventually became immense. It has been estimated that the total length of the qanat system today, counting wells, shafts, and canals, is

in excess of 300,000 kilometers (almost the distance from Earth to the Moon!), which gives some idea of the tremendous investment in money and labor power it represents. Yet the type of agriculture that developed around the qanat system gave modest yields and required hard work from the peasant farmers, who received only a small share of the agricultural produce.

索取“原文+题目+答案+解析+MP3音频”,请加新航道上海老师微信(shnc_2018)

tf-1.jpg



相关热点: 托福tpo65

免费领取资料

免费领取剑桥雅思、TPO、SAT真题、百人留学备考群,团队答疑,助教监督,分享资讯,领取资料。

方法1:扫码添加新航道老师

微信号:shnc_2018

方法2:留下表单信息,老师会及时与您联系

热门课程

  • 走读班(6-10人)
  • 走读班(20-30人)
  • 住宿班(6-10人)
  • 住宿班(20-30人)
  • 托福一对一
课程名称 班级人数 课时 学费 报名
托福基础走读班(6-10人) 6-10人 144课时 ¥29800 在线咨询
托福全程走读班(6-10人) 6-10人 192课时 ¥39800 在线咨询
托福强化走读班(6-10人) 6-10人 96课时 ¥24800 在线咨询
托福十一特训班 6-10人 56 ¥15800 在线咨询
托福特训班(4周,走读) 8-10人 192 ¥34800 在线咨询
课程名称 班级人数 课时 学费 报名
托福全程班(20-30人,走读) 20-30人 192课时 ¥13800 在线咨询
托福强化班(20-30人,走读) 20-30人 96课时 ¥7800 在线咨询
托福冲刺班(20-30人,走读) 20-30人 96课时 ¥8800 在线咨询
课程名称 班级人数 课时 学费 报名
托福基础班(6-10人,住宿) 6-10人 144课时 ¥28800 在线咨询
托福全程班(4周,住宿) 6-10人 304课时 ¥41800 在线咨询
托福词汇语法住宿班(6-10人) 6-10人 48课时 ¥8800 在线咨询
托福精听精读住宿班(6-10人) 6-10人 48课时 ¥8800 在线咨询
托福100暑期精英封闭班 10-15人 228时 ¥26800 在线咨询
课程名称 班级人数 课时 学费 报名
托福全程班(20-30人,住宿) 20-30人 192课时 ¥15800 在线咨询
托福强化班(20-30人,住宿) 20-30人 96课时 ¥8800 在线咨询
托福冲刺班(20-30人,住宿) 20-30人 96课时 ¥9800 在线咨询
课程名称 班级人数 课时 学费 报名
托福一对一 1 按需定制 在线咨询
托福精听精读十一特训班 在线咨询
托福随到随学班 8小时 ¥1480元 在线咨询

免责声明
1、如转载本网原创文章,请表明出处;
2、本网转载媒体稿件旨在传播更多有益信息,并不代表同意该观点,本网不承担稿件侵权行为的连带责任;
3、如本网转载稿、资料分享涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后速与新航道联系(电话:021-64380066),我们会时间删除。

  • 徐家汇校区
  • 人民广场校区
  • 浦东校区
  • 中山公园校区
  • 杨浦校区
  • 闵行校区
  • 松江校区
  • 封闭集训营
  • 地址:徐汇区裕德路126号

    乘车路线:地铁1、4号线上海体育馆、3号线9号线宜山路站、11号线上海游泳馆站

  • 地址:南京西路338号天安中心24楼

    乘车路线:地铁1、2、8号线人民广场站

  • 地址:浦东新区世纪大道1128号岚桥国际大厦3楼(地铁2号线世纪大道站12号口出)

    乘车路线:地铁2、4、6号线世纪大道站

  • 地址:长宁路1158号 贝多芬广场 A座4楼414室

    乘车路线:乘车路线:地铁3、4号线中山公园站

  • 地址:杨浦区国宾路18号万达广场A座18楼

    乘车路线:地铁10号线五角场站

  • 地址:东川路1779-19号

    乘车路线:地铁5号线 东川路站4号口出

  • 地址:松江大学城四期校区:文汇路928弄想飞天地2204

    乘车路线:地铁9号线松江大学城站下

  • 地址:上海市浦东新区惠南镇拱极路2151号

    乘车路线:地铁16号线惠南站

  • 微信公众号
  • 微信社群

注册/登录

+86
获取验证码

登录

+86

收不到验证码?

知道了

找回密码

+86
获取验证码
下一步

重新设置密码

为您的账号设置一个新密码

保存新密码

密码重置成功

请妥善保存您的密码
登录

为了确保您的帐号安全

请勿将帐号信息提供给他人/机构