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首页>雅思>剑桥雅思6解析>剑桥雅思6Test2阅读PASSAGE 2 参考译文:老龄人口健康依旧

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读PASSAGE 2 参考译文:老龄人口健康依旧

2017年04月12日 11:04来源:互联网作者:新航道雅思

摘要:新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑桥雅思6TEST 2 PASSAGE 2 参考译文:老龄人口健康依旧;相应的解析,请点击:剑桥雅思6test2passage2阅读原文+题目+答案解析。

新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑桥雅思6TEST 2 PASSAGE 2 参考译文:老龄人口健康依旧;相应的解析,请点击:剑桥雅思6test2passage2阅读原文+题目+答案解析

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  TEST 2 PASSAGE 2 参考译文:

  GREYING POPULATION STAYS IN THE PINK

  老龄人口健康依旧

  Elderly people are growing healthier, happier and more independent, say American scientists. The results of a 14-year study to be announced later this month reveal that the diseases associated with old age are afflicting fewer and fewer people and when they do strike, it is much later in life.

  美国科学家指岀,现在老年人身体越来越健康,幸福感更强,生活更加独立。本月即将发布的一项持续长达14年的研究的结果显示,遭受老龄疾病折磨的人越来越少,即使是真的发病,年龄也向后推迟了不少。

  In the last 14 years, the National Long-term Health Care Survey has gathered data on the health and lifestyles of more than 20,000 men and women over 65. Researchers, now analysing the results of data gathered in 1994, say arthritis, high blood pressure and circulation problems — the major medical complaints in this age group — are troubling a smaller proportion every year. And the data confirms that the rate at which these diseases are declining continues to accelerate. Other diseases of old age — dementia, stroke, arteriosclerosis and emphysema — are also troubling fewer and fewer people.

  在过去的14年中,美国国家长期卫生保健调查收集了2万多名65岁以上的老年男性和女性健康状况和生活方式的数据资料。研究者们正在分析1994年收集的数据结果,他们表示。困扰这一年龄段老年人的主要疾病是关节炎、高血压和循环系统疾病,这些疾病的患病人数比例正在逐年下降。数据证实,上述疾病发病率下降的速度在继续加快。其他老龄疾病,诸如老年痴呆症、中风、动脉硬化和肺气肿等,患病人数也在逐年下降。

  ‘It really raises the question of what should be considered normal ageing,’ says Kenneth Manton, a demographer from Duke University in North Carolina. He says the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-old in 1982 are often not appearing until people are 70 or 75.

  北卡罗来纳州杜克大学的人口统计学家肯尼思?曼顿说:“这的确促使我们思考到底什么情况才是正常老龄化的问题。”他指出,在1982年医生们认为是65岁老人常见疾病的症状现在经常要推迟到70或75岁才会出现。

  Clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances. But there may be other contributing factors. Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, gave today’s elderly people a better start in life than their predecessors.

  显然,一些疾病在医学进步的面前被击退。除此之外,也可能有其他原因。例如,在20世纪的前25年中,儿童营养状况的改善使现在的老年人比以前的人们拥有更加健康的生活开端。

  On the downside, the data also reveals failures in public health that have caused surges in some illnesses. An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality, say the researchers. ‘These may be subtle influences,’ says Manton, ‘but our subjects have been exposed to worse and worse pollution for over 60 years. It’s not surprising we see some effect."

  从不利方面来看,研究数据同样显示出公共卫生的不力措施导致了某些疾病的猛增。研究者们指出, 有些癌症和支气管疾病发病率的上升可能反映出人们吸烟习惯的变化和空气质量逐年恶化的问题。曼顿说:“这或许只是些细微的影响,但我们的研究对象已经在污染日益严重的环境中生活了60多年。因而,这些后果的出现也就不足为奇了。”

  One interesting correlation Manton uncovered is that better-educated people are likely to live longer. For example, 65-year-old women with fewer than eight years of schooling are expected, on average, to live to 82. Those who continued their education live an extra seven years. Although some of this can be attributed to a higher income, Manton believes it is mainly because educated people seek more medical attention.

  曼顿揭示了一种有趣的关联,即人们受教育的程度越髙,寿命可能就越长。例如,在65岁的女性中,受教育时间低于8年的女性的预期寿命平均可达82岁,而那些继续接受教育的女性的平均寿命则延长了7年之多。曼顿认为,尽管部分原因可以归结为更高的收人水平,但主要原因还是受过良好教育的人会更加注重医疗保健。

  The survey also assessed how independent people over 65 were, and again found a striking trend. Almost 80% of those in the 1994 survey could complete everyday activities ranging from eating and dressing unaided to complex tasks such as cooking and managing their finances. That represents a significant drop in the number of disabled old people in the population. If the trends apparent in the United States 14 years ago had continued, researchers calculate there would be an additional one million disabled elderly people in today’s population. According to Manton, slowing the trend has saved the United States government’s Medicare system more than $200 billion, suggesting that the greying of America’s population may prove less of a financial burden than expected.

  该调查同时评估了年龄在65岁以上的走人的独立程度,这再次发现了一个惊人的发展趋势。在1994年调查中,近80%的人都能完成日常起居活动,包括简单的活动,如独立的饮食和穿衣,也包括复杂的活动,如烹饪和财务管理等。这表明总人口中不能自理的老人的数量在显著下降。研究者们估算,如果美国14 年前的发展趋势持续下去的话,现今总人口中将会多出100万名不能自理的老人。曼顿表示,减缓这一趋势为美国政府的医疗保险系统节省了2,000多亿美元的开支,这意味着美国人口老龄化所带来的经济负担可能不像人们想象中的那样沉重。

  The increasing self-reliance of many elderly people is probably linked to a massive increase in the use of simple home medical aids. For instance, the use of raised toilet seats has more than doubled since the start of the study, and the use of bath seats has grown by more than 50%. These developments also bring some health benefits, according to a report from the MacArthur Foundation’s research group on successful ageing. The group found that those elderly people who were able to retain a sense of independence were more likely to stay healthy in old age.

  老年人自理能力的增强可能与简易家庭医疗辅助用品的广泛使用有关。例如,自该研究开始至今,使用增高座便器的人数增加了一倍之多,而使用浴缸座椅的人数也增加了50%以上。麦克阿瑟基金会研究小组发表的一项成功老龄化研究报告表明,上述发展变化同样给健康带来了好处。该研究小组发现,那些能够保持独立感的老年人更有可能在晚年保持身体健康。

  Maintaining a level of daily physical activity may help mental functioning, says Carl Cotman, a neuroscientist at the University of California at Irvine. He found that rats that exercise on a treadmill have raised levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor coursing through their brains. Cotman believes this hormone, which keeps neurons functioning, may prevent the brains of active humans from deteriorating.

  加利福尼亚大学欧文分校的神经学家卡尔?科特曼指出,维持一定数量的日常体育运动将有助于提高大脑功能的运作。他发现对于在脚踏车上运动的老鼠,流经大脑的脑源性神经营养因子含量水平会升高。 科特曼认为,这种维持神经细胞功能的激素可以阻止活跃的人类大脑功能退化。

  As part of the same study, Teresa Seeman, a social epidemiologist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, found a connection between self-esteem and stress in people over 70. In laboratory simulations of challenging activities such as driving, those who felt in control of their lives pumped out lower levels of stress hormones such as cortisol. Chronically high levels of these hormones have been linked to heart disease.

  在同一调查研究中,洛杉肌南加利福尼亚大学的社会流行病学家特里萨?西曼发现在70岁以上的老年人中,自尊心和压力之间存在相互联系。在诸如驾驶汽车等挑战性活动的模拟试验中,感觉生活在自己掌控之中的人所释放的应激激素水平较低,比如肾上腺皮质激素。而心脏疾病则被证明与应激激素水平长期偏髙有关。

  But independence can have drawbacks. Seeman found that elderly people who felt emotionally isolated maintained higher levels of stress hormones even when asleep. The research suggests that older people fare best when they feel independent but know they can get help when they need it.

  然而,独立自主也有其缺点。西曼发现,感到精神孤独的老年人即使是在睡梦中也保持着较高的应激激素水平。研究结果显示,如果老人们知道自己在需要时能够得到帮助,就可以在保持独立感的同时拥有最幸福的生活。

  ‘Like much research into ageing, these results support common sense,’ says Seeman. They also show that we may be underestimating the impact of these simple factors. ‘The sort of thing that your grandmother always told you turns out to be right on target,’ she says.

  西曼指出:“同许多研究老龄化问题的调査一样,其结果完全符合常识。”此外,研究结果显示,我们可能低估了某些简单因素的影响。她这样说道:“祖母经常向你讲的道理被证明是完全正确的。”

 

 

 

 

 

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