2017年04月12日 10:04来源:互联网作者:新航道雅思




  PASSAGE 1 参考译文:

  Advantages of public transport


  A new study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University’s Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and private costs of building, maintaining and using a transport system.


  The study found that the Western Australian city of Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. As a result, 17% of its wealth went into transport costs. Some European and Asian cities, on the other hand, spent as little as 5%. Professor Peter Newman, ISTP Director, pointed out that these more efficient cities were able to put the difference into attracting industry and jobs or creating a better place to live.


  According to Professor Newman, the larger Australian city of Melbourne is a rather unusual city in this sort of comparison. He describes it as two cities: ‘A European city surrounded by a car-dependent one’. Melbourne’s large tram network has made car use in the inner city much lower, but the outer suburbs have the same car-based structure as most other Australian cities. The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people’s preferences as to where they live.


  Newman says this is a new, broader way of considering public transport issues. In the past, the case for public transport has been made on the basis of environmental and social justice considerations rather than economics. Newman, however, believes the study demonstrates that ‘the auto-dependent city model is inefficient and grossly inadequate in economic as well as environmental terms’.


  Bicycle use was not included in the study but Newman noted that the two most ‘bicycle friendly’ cities considered — Amsterdam and Copenhagen — were very efficient, even though their public transport systems were ‘reasonable but not special’.


  It is common for supporters of road networks to reject the models of cities with good public transport by arguing that such systems would not work in their particular city. One objection is climate. Some people say their city could not make more use of public transport because it is either too hot or too cold. Newman rejects this, pointing out that public transport has been successful in both Toronto and Singapore and, in fact, he has checked the use of cars against climate and found ‘zero correlation’.


  When it comes to other physical features, road lobbies are on stronger ground. For example, Newman accepts it would be hard for a city as hilly as Auckland to develop a really good rail network. However, he points out that both Hong Kong and Zurich have managed to make a success of their rail systems, heavy and light respectively, though there are few cities in the world as hilly.


  A In fact, Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort of transport over another is politics: ‘The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.’ He considers Portland, Oregon, a perfect example of this. Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well. In the years that have followed, more and more rail systems have been put in, dramatically changing the nature of the city. Newman notes that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.

  A 纽曼教授认为,事实上,决定采用哪一种交通运输方式的主要因素是政治,“决策过程越民主,公共交通就越容易得到支持”。他将美国俄勒冈州的波特兰市看作是其中的范例。几年前,国家拨款修建一条新公路。但是,当地的压力团体强行组织了一次公民投票,来表决是否要将国家拨款花费在建设替代公路的轻轨上。修建轻轨的提议最终获得通过,而且轨道系统在当地的运行状况非常良好。在随后的几年中,波特兰市修建了更多的轨道交通系统,城市面貌也因此得到巨大改善。纽曼教授发现,波特兰市与珀斯市的人口数量大致相同,并且当时的人口密度也十分相近。

  B In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.

  B 在英国,人们不会去做通勤时间需要半小时以上的工作,因而六百年来,花在上班路途上的时间都得以保持不变。刚开始的时候,火车和汽车使人们住得远,却又无需增加花在路途上的时间。然而,公共基础设施无法跟上城市扩张的步伐,这就导致了大规模的交通拥堵问题,并且使上下班的时间大大延长。

  C There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars — creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.

  C 有一种广泛的说法是:财富的不断增长促使人们到更远的地方居住,而汽车是那里唯一可行的交通工具。然而许多欧洲城市的例子可以反驳这一观点。相对于美国城市,欧洲城市通常更加富有,而汽车使用率却比美国低。近年来,随着城市规模的不断扩张和财富的逐年增加,斯德哥尔摩的汽车使用率反而还有所 下降。一项新的研究更清楚地说明了这一点。亚洲的发展中城市,例如雅加达和曼谷,其汽车使用率要高于像东京和新加坡这样的富裕地区。在发展比较滞后的城市中,世界银行和亚洲发展银行不鼓励修建公共交通系统,因此人们不得不依赖汽车作为交通工具这导致了这些城市中标志性的大塞车。

  D Newman believes one of the best studies on how cities built for cars might be converted to rail use is The Urban Village report, which used Melbourne as an example. It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.

  D 纽曼教授认为,以墨尔本为例的“城中村”报告是最优秀的研究报告之一,报告主要讲述如何将以汽车代步的城市转变成以轨道交通为主的城市。该报告显示,让大家都住在市中心并不是最好的方法。反之,报告主张建立几百个集中在车站附近的城中村。

  E It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. ‘The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.’

  E 曾经有人假设,由于人们不再被迫住在城市,电信的改进将促使人口进一步分散。然而,ISTP研究小组的调查显示继几十年的下降之后,在20世纪80年代,城市人口和职位的密度都保持不变或有所上升。似乎合理的解释为,将工作在相关领域的人聚集在一起可以创造更大的价值。“未来新世界将主要依靠人类的创造力,而创造力在人们面对面的交流中会更加活跃。”







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