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首页>雅思>剑桥雅思6解析>剑桥雅思6Test2Passage1译文-公共交通的优势

剑桥雅思6Test2Passage1译文-公共交通的优势

2017年04月12日 10:04来源:互联网作者:新航道雅思

摘要:新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑桥英语6Test2Passage1译文-公共交通的优势,相应的解析,请点击:剑桥雅思6test2阅读passage1原文+题目+答案解析。

新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑桥英语6Test2Passage1译文-公共交通的优势,相应的解析,请点击:剑桥雅思6test2阅读passage1原文+题目+答案解析

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  PASSAGE 1 参考译文:

  Advantages of public transport

  公共交通的优势

  A new study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University’s Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty-seven cities around the world. This included both the public and private costs of building, maintaining and using a transport system.

  默多克大学的科技政策研究所(ISTP)为世界银行做的最新研究表明,公共交通工具的效率髙于小汽车。该研究比较了全世界37座城市公共交通投人资金所占的比例。这其中包括修建、维护和使用公交系统时的政府投人和个人开销。

  The study found that the Western Australian city of Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. As a result, 17% of its wealth went into transport costs. Some European and Asian cities, on the other hand, spent as little as 5%. Professor Peter Newman, ISTP Director, pointed out that these more efficient cities were able to put the difference into attracting industry and jobs or creating a better place to live.

  研究显示,西澳大利亚的首府珀斯是最低限度发展公交系统的典型例子。结果是,该市的交通成本竟占政府收人的17%。然而,某些欧洲和亚洲城市的交通成本则仅有5%。研究所主任彼得?纽曼教授指出,后面这些效率更高的城市能够将更多资金投人到发展工业、扩大就业和创造更好的生活环境中去。

  According to Professor Newman, the larger Australian city of Melbourne is a rather unusual city in this sort of comparison. He describes it as two cities: ‘A European city surrounded by a car-dependent one’. Melbourne’s large tram network has made car use in the inner city much lower, but the outer suburbs have the same car-based structure as most other Australian cities. The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people’s preferences as to where they live.

  纽曼认为,如此进行比较的话,规模相对较大的澳大利亚城市墨尔本则显得格外与众不同。他将其形容为双层城市:“一座欧洲城市外面裹着另一座汽车代步城。”墨尔本规模庞大的有轨电车网络大大降低了市内的汽车使用率,但远郊地区则同大多数其他澳大利亚城市一样依赖汽车交通。而该市近郊住房需求的激增正显示出近年来人们在选择居住地点时观念的变化。

  Newman says this is a new, broader way of considering public transport issues. In the past, the case for public transport has been made on the basis of environmental and social justice considerations rather than economics. Newman, however, believes the study demonstrates that ‘the auto-dependent city model is inefficient and grossly inadequate in economic as well as environmental terms’.

  据纽曼教授称,这是一种更广泛考虑公共交通问题的新方式。过去在解决公共交通问题时,我们通常关心的是环境和社会的合理性,而不是经济情况。除此之外,纽曼教授认为该研究显示了“依赖汽车作为交通工具的城市发展模式不仅效率低下,而且在经济与环境发展方而也相当不足”。

  Bicycle use was not included in the study but Newman noted that the two most ‘bicycle friendly’ cities considered — Amsterdam and Copenhagen — were very efficient, even though their public transport systems were ‘reasonable but not special’.

  自行车没有包含在此项研究范围之内。然而,纽曼教授指出在考察研究的37座城市中,阿姆斯特丹和哥本哈根这两座自行车普及率最高的城市效率也非常高,即便他们的公共交通系统“特色全无,相当一般”。

  It is common for supporters of road networks to reject the models of cities with good public transport by arguing that such systems would not work in their particular city. One objection is climate. Some people say their city could not make more use of public transport because it is either too hot or too cold. Newman rejects this, pointing out that public transport has been successful in both Toronto and Singapore and, in fact, he has checked the use of cars against climate and found ‘zero correlation’.

  公路网的拥护者们普遍反对以发达的公共交通系统为标志的城市发展模式。他们坚持认为该系统在个别城市并不适用。气候是反对的理由之一。有些人说他们的城市要么夏天太热,要么冬天太冷,以至于无法充分利用公交系统。纽曼教授则否定了这一观点,他指出公交系统的发展在多伦多和新加坡地区均获得了巨大成功。事实上,他调查过是否天气糟糕人们就会使用汽车,结果发现两者之间毫无关联。

  When it comes to other physical features, road lobbies are on stronger ground. For example, Newman accepts it would be hard for a city as hilly as Auckland to develop a really good rail network. However, he points out that both Hong Kong and Zurich have managed to make a success of their rail systems, heavy and light respectively, though there are few cities in the world as hilly.

  当我们考虑到其他硬件条件时,公路网的支持者们就有了更充分的理由。例如,纽曼认同,对于山地城市奥克兰来说,开发真正成功的轨道交通网是一件困难的事情。然而,他指出,虽然全世界的山地城市为数不多,但香港和苏黎世都分别设法成功地建成了重型和轻型轨道交通系统。

  A In fact, Newman believes the main reason for adopting one sort of transport over another is politics: ‘The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.’ He considers Portland, Oregon, a perfect example of this. Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well. In the years that have followed, more and more rail systems have been put in, dramatically changing the nature of the city. Newman notes that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.

  A 纽曼教授认为,事实上,决定采用哪一种交通运输方式的主要因素是政治,“决策过程越民主,公共交通就越容易得到支持”。他将美国俄勒冈州的波特兰市看作是其中的范例。几年前,国家拨款修建一条新公路。但是,当地的压力团体强行组织了一次公民投票,来表决是否要将国家拨款花费在建设替代公路的轻轨上。修建轻轨的提议最终获得通过,而且轨道系统在当地的运行状况非常良好。在随后的几年中,波特兰市修建了更多的轨道交通系统,城市面貌也因此得到巨大改善。纽曼教授发现,波特兰市与珀斯市的人口数量大致相同,并且当时的人口密度也十分相近。

  B In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.

  B 在英国,人们不会去做通勤时间需要半小时以上的工作,因而六百年来,花在上班路途上的时间都得以保持不变。刚开始的时候,火车和汽车使人们住得远,却又无需增加花在路途上的时间。然而,公共基础设施无法跟上城市扩张的步伐,这就导致了大规模的交通拥堵问题,并且使上下班的时间大大延长。

  C There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars — creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.

  C 有一种广泛的说法是:财富的不断增长促使人们到更远的地方居住,而汽车是那里唯一可行的交通工具。然而许多欧洲城市的例子可以反驳这一观点。相对于美国城市,欧洲城市通常更加富有,而汽车使用率却比美国低。近年来,随着城市规模的不断扩张和财富的逐年增加,斯德哥尔摩的汽车使用率反而还有所 下降。一项新的研究更清楚地说明了这一点。亚洲的发展中城市,例如雅加达和曼谷,其汽车使用率要高于像东京和新加坡这样的富裕地区。在发展比较滞后的城市中,世界银行和亚洲发展银行不鼓励修建公共交通系统,因此人们不得不依赖汽车作为交通工具这导致了这些城市中标志性的大塞车。

  D Newman believes one of the best studies on how cities built for cars might be converted to rail use is The Urban Village report, which used Melbourne as an example. It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.

  D 纽曼教授认为,以墨尔本为例的“城中村”报告是最优秀的研究报告之一,报告主要讲述如何将以汽车代步的城市转变成以轨道交通为主的城市。该报告显示,让大家都住在市中心并不是最好的方法。反之,报告主张建立几百个集中在车站附近的城中村。

  E It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. ‘The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.’

  E 曾经有人假设,由于人们不再被迫住在城市,电信的改进将促使人口进一步分散。然而,ISTP研究小组的调查显示继几十年的下降之后,在20世纪80年代,城市人口和职位的密度都保持不变或有所上升。似乎合理的解释为,将工作在相关领域的人聚集在一起可以创造更大的价值。“未来新世界将主要依靠人类的创造力,而创造力在人们面对面的交流中会更加活跃。”

 

 

 

 

 

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