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剑桥雅思6Test4阅读passage3原文+翻译

2017年04月20日 11:44来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

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  Persistent bullying is one of the worst experiences a child can face. How can it be prevented?Peter Smith, Professor of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, directed the Sheffield Anti-Bullying Intervention Project, funded by the Department for Education.Here he reports on his findings.

  不断受到欺凌是孩子所面临的最糟糕的经历之一。如何阻止其发生呢?谢菲尔大学心理学家教授彼得?史密斯在教育部的资助下组织了谢菲尔德反欺凌干预项目。以下是他的一些发现。

  A Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal — being taunted or called hurtful names ?— to the physical — being kicked or shoved — as well as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant.

  A 欺凌有多种方式:从口头上的——比如被嘲笑或者被叫很伤人的外号,到身体上的——比如被打、被踢或推搡。此外,还有一些不太直接的欺凌方式,比如被社会团体排斥在外。在我和Irene Whitney开展的一项调查中,我们发现在英国小学中,有四分之一的小学生有过受欺凌的经历,其中十例中有一例为持续受到欺凌,中学的欺凌现象要好一些,大约二十五例中有一例是持续受到欺凌,但是在这些情况中,受欺凌者可能反抗极其强烈。

  B Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimised pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of anti-social offences.

  B 欺凌显然是很不愉快的,而且会使经历过的孩子产生自贬和沮丧情绪在一些极端的情况中,欺凌甚至会导致自杀,但是很庆幸的是此类事件比较罕见。受到欺凌的小学生成年后更容易在人际沟通中遭遇困难,而那些经常实施欺凌的孩子长大后更有可能具有身体暴力倾向并且犯下反社会的罪行。

  C Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’

  C 到目前为止,我们对这一问题的了解还远远不够,而且也几乎没有给教师提供处理欺凌问题的帮助。可能由此产生的一个现象就是学校经常会否认这一问题。“在这个学校没有欺凌的现象”已经被重复了无数次。但是绝大多数情况下这都不是事实。庆幸的是现在有越来越多的学校承认:“我们学校欺凌现象并不多,但是当其发生时,我们有很明确的处理方法”。

  D Three factors are involved in this change. First is an awareness of the severity of the problem. Second, a number of resources to help tackle bullying have become available in Britain. For example, the Scottish Council for Research in Education produced a package of materials, Action Against Bullying, circulated to all schools in England and Wales as well as in Scotland in summer 1992, with a second pack, Supporting Schools Against Bullying, produced the following year. In Ireland, Guidelines on Countering Bullying Behaviour in Post-Primary Schools was published in 1993. Third, there is evidence that these materials work, and that schools can achieve something. This comes from carefully conducted ‘before and after’ evaluations of interventions in schools, monitored by a research team. In Norway, after an intervention campaign was introduced nationally, an evaluation of forty-two schools suggested that, over a two-year period, bullying was halved. The Sheffield investigation, which involved sixteen primary schools and seven secondary schools, found that most schools succeeded in reducing bullying.

  D 导致这一变化有三个原因。第一是对欺凌问题严重性的认识;第二,在英国有一些帮助处理欺凌问题的资源。比如,苏格兰教育研究局发行了一系列的材料:《反欺凌行动》在1992年夏被提供给英格兰、威尔士和苏格兰地区的所有学校。第二年又发行了《支持学校反对欺凌》。在爱尔兰地区,《在小学反抗遭遇欺凌行为指南》于1993年发行。第三,有证据表明,这些材料发挥了作用,学校也因此在反欺凌方面取得了一些成绩。这一结果来自于一项研究组监控的并认真开展的主题为“之前和之后”的对学校干预的评估。在挪威,经过一次全国范围的干预运动之后,对42所学校的一项评估显示,在两年多的时间内欺凌行为减少了一半。在谢菲尔德大学对16所小学和7所中学的一项调查中发现,大多数学校在减少欺凌行为方面取得了成功。

  E Evidence suggests that a key step is to develop a policy on bullying, saying clearly what is meant by bullying, and giving explicit guidelines on what will be done if it occurs, what records will be kept, who will be informed, what sanctions will be employed. The policy should be developed through consultation, over a period of time — not just imposed from the head teacher’s office! Pupils, parents and staff should feel they have been involved in the policy, which needs to be disseminated and implemented effectively.

  E 证据表明,控制欺凌行为最核心的步骤是制定针对欺凌行为的政策,明确欺凌行为意味着什么,并就其发生时应该采取哪些措施、保存哪些记录、通知何人、实施何种制裁方式等给出明确的指导。这一政策应该经过一段时间的磋商形成,而不是只在校长办公室里硬性实施的方案。应该使学生、家长和教职员工都感觉参与到政策的制定当中,而且这一政策需要广泛的传播和有效的执行。

  Other actions can be taken to back up the policy. There are ways of dealing with the topic

  through the curriculum, using video, drama and literature. These are useful for raising awareness, and can best be tied in to early phases of development, while the school is starting to discuss the issue of bullying. They are also useful in renewing the policy for new pupils, or revising it in the light of experience. But curriculum work alone may only have short-term effects; it should be an addition to policy work, not a substitute.

  可以采取其他措施来支持这个政策。可以通过使用影像、戏剧和文学等多种方法在课程中处理这一主题。这些方法对提高人们的意识是很有帮助的,而且最好将其放在学校讨论欺凌行为形成政策的早期阶段。此外,这为新入校的小学生更新政策或根据实际情况进行修订也很有用。但是仅靠课程只会有短期效果,它应该是对政策的补充,而非替代品。

  There are also ways of working with individual pupils, or in small groups. Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile, and certain approaches to group bullying such as ‘no blame’, can be useful in changing the behaviour of bullying pupils without confronting them directly, although other sanctions may be needed for those who continue with persistent bullying.

  还有一些方法适合用于单个小学生或小团体。对于那些容易成为被欺凌对象的学生而言,进行自信训练是很值得做的;在发生群体欺凌行为时,某些特定的方法,比如“不责备”是与实施欺凌行为的学生不直接对抗而改变他们行为的有效方法。然而,对于那些长期持续实施欺凌行为的学生,我们必须对其进行制裁。

  Work in the playground is important, too. One helpful step is to train lunchtime supervisors to distinguish bullying from playful fighting, and help them break up conflicts. Another possibility is to improve the playground environment, so that pupils are less likely to be led into bullying from boredom or frustration.

  在操场上开展工作也是很重要的。一个有效的步骤就是培训午餐时段督导员以区分嬉戏式争斗和欺凌行为,并帮助他们中止冲突。另一个可能的措施就是改善操场环境,从而使学生不太可能因为厌倦或感到挫折而实施欺凌行为。

  F With these developments, schools can expect that at least the most serious kinds of bullying can largely be prevented. The more effort put in and the wider the whole school involvement, the more substantial the results are likely to be. The reduction in bullying — and the consequent improvement in pupil happiness — is surely a worthwhile objective.

  F 随着环境和方式方法的改进,我们可以预见至少可以最大程度地防止学校里最严重的欺凌行为的发生。我们付出的努力越多,学校参与的力度越大,取得的效果就可能越好。欺凌行为的减少和因此产生的学生幸福感的递增无疑是一个值得为之努力的目标。

 

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