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剑4Test3阅读passage1译文-流浪儿童的小型企业贷款

2017年04月18日 11:04来源:互联网作者:新航道雅思

摘要:新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑4 T3 阅读译文 P1-流浪儿童的小型企业贷款,相应的解析,请点击:剑4Test3阅读解析Passage1。

新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑4 T3 阅读译文 P1-流浪儿童的小型企业贷款,相应的解析,请点击:剑4Test3阅读解析Passage1

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  Passage1

  参考译文

  Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

  流浪儿童的小型企业贷款

  ‘I am from a large, poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast. Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes.’

  Doreen Soko

  “我来自一个贫困的大家庭。我们已经很多年没吃过早餐了。自从加人了国际流浪儿童组织,早饭我们就吃得起糖和面包了。我还给自己买了体面的二手服装和二手鞋子。”

  DOREEN SOKO

  ‘We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we’ve been doing. I’ve learnt cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for re-investment. Now business is a part of our lives. As well, we didn’t know each other before — now we’ve made new friends.’

  Fan Kaoma

  “我们有经商的经验。现在我非常有信心扩大我的生意。我学过现金管理以及节省开支的方法,所以现在存了些钱进行再投资。生意已经成了我生活的一部分。还有,以前我们素不相识——现在,我们已经交到了很多新朋友。”

  FAN KAOMA

  Participants in the Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative Program, Zambia

  赞比亚青年创业计划的参与人

  Introduction

  Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children living on the street or in difficult circumstances.

  简介

  尽管在世界范围内,小型企业培训及贷款计划已经越来越普遍,然而相对而言,很少有人注意到年轻人也需要获得这样的机会。更少的人会去留意那些无家可归或家境贫困的孩子。

  Over the past nine years, Street Kids International (S.K.I.) has been working with partner organisations in Africa, Latin America and India to support the economic lives of street children. The purpose of this paper is to share some of the lessons S.K.I. and our partners have learned.

  在过去的九年里,国际流浪儿童组织已经与非洲、拉丁美洲以及印度的伙伴组织进行合作,来改善流浪儿童的经济状况。此文的目的主要是为了和大家分享一下他们所总结的经验教训。

  Background

  Typically, children do not end up on the streets due to a single cause, but to a combination of factors: a dearth of adequately funded schools, the demand for income at home, family breakdown and violence. The street may be attractive to children as a place to find adventurous play and money. However, it is also a place where some children are exposed, with little or no protection, to exploitative employment, urban crime, and abuse.

  背景

  通常来讲,儿童流离失所并非由某个原因造成,而是若干因素综合所致:比如缺乏拥有足够资金的学校,家里等着用钱,父母离异以及家庭暴力等。对于孩子来讲,街道可能是个令人着迷的地方,充满了冒险游戏和赚钱机会。然而,由于缺乏或根本没有保护,有些孩子在那里遭到剥削,遭遇暴力事件甚至虐待。

  Children who work on the streets are generally involved in unskilled, labour-intensive tasks which require long hours, such as shining shoes, carrying goods, guarding or washing cars, and informal trading. Some may also earn income through begging, or through theft and other illegal activities. At the same time, there are street children who take pride in supporting themselves and their families and who often enjoy their work. Many children may choose entrepreneurship because it allows them a degree of independence, is less exploitative than many forms of paid employment, and is flexible enough to allow them to participate in other activities such as education and domestic tasks.

  在街头工作的孩子们通常都是从事一些无需技术但工作时间超长的劳动力密集型工作,比如擦鞋,搬运货物、门童或冼车,以及不正规交易。有些孩子甚至通过乞讨或干盗窃等非法勾当来赚钱。同时,也有些流浪儿童以能够养活自己和家人而自豪,而且他们很喜欢所做的工作。许多孩子会选择做生意是因为那可以使他们相对独立一些,而且做生意也比做其他许多有偿工作要少受一些压榨;生意的灵活性还使他们有时间去参与其他活动,比如上学或是做家务。

  Street Business Partnerships

  流浪儿童就业互助计划

  S.K.I. has worked with partner organisations in Latin America, Africa and India to develop innovative opportunities for street children to earn income.

  国际流浪儿童组织与拉丁美洲、非洲及印度的伙伴组织合作,开发了让流浪儿童赚钱的新机会。

  ? The S.K.I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in the Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India.

  ?国际流浪儿童组织速递服务首先在苏丹展开。这项计划为参与者提供自行车用以递送包裹或信件,买自行车的钱会从参与者的工资中一点一点扣除。在印度的班加罗尔,一项类似的计划也已经展开。

  ? Another successful project, The Shoe Shine Collective, was a partnership program with the Y.W.C.A. in the Dominican Republic. In this project, participants were lent money to purchase shoe shine boxes. They were also given a safe place to store their equipment, and facilities for individual savings plans.

  ?在多米尼加共和国,一项与基督教女青年会合作,名为擦鞋合作社的计划也已经成功展开。这项计划借钱给参与者购买擦鞋箱,还给他们提供一个安全的地方来放置擦鞋工具,同时还提供了供他们存钱的设备。

  ? The Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative in Zambia is a joint program with the Red Cross Society and the Y.W.C.A. Street youths are supported to start their own small business through business training, life skills training and access to credit.

  ?赞比亚的青年创业计划是与红十字协会以及基督教女青年会合办的项自。通过商务培训、生存技能训练以及提供贷款机会等方式,该项目的参与者得以开办自己的小生意。

  Lessons learned

  The following lessons have emerged from the programs that S.K.I. and partner organisations have created.

  经验教训

  在国际流浪儿童组织的计划实施过程中,出现了下列教训:

  ? Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organisation’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship-building will have already been established.

  ?不是每个人都是做生意的料,流浪儿童也一样。理想状态下,孩子们至少应该参与计划六个月以上,这样双方之间可以建立起信任关系。

  ? The involvement of the participants has been essential to the development of relevant programs. When children have had a major role in determining procedures, they are more likely to abide by and enforce them.

  ?参与者的投入对于建立相关计划十分重要。如果孩子们在制定规程过程中起到关键作用,他们就更可能去遵守并执行这些规定。

  ? It is critical for all loans to be linked to training programs that include the development of basic business and life skills.

  ?关键是所有的贷款都要与培训计划眹系起来,培训计划应该包括基本商业技能及生存技能的开发。

  ? There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program, where such relationships exist. Home visits allow staff the opportunity to know where the participants live, and to understand more about each individual’s situation.

  ?如果条件允许的话,容许家长或监护人参与计划是十分有好处的。家访使工作人员有机会知晓孩子们的住址,并且可以更好地了解每个人所处的环境。

  ? Small loans are provided initially for purchasing fixed assets such as bicycles, shoe shine kits and basic building materials for a market stall. As the entrepreneurs gain experience, the enterprises can be gradually expanded and consideration can be given to increasing loan amounts. The loan amounts in S.K.I. programs have generally ranged from US$30-$100.

  ?开始的时候应该给孩子们提供一些小额贷款,以便他们购买如自行车、擦鞋设备以及市场摊位的原材料等固定资产。当从业者有了经验之后,就可以考虑扩大生意规模,并且考虑提髙贷款金额。国际流浪儿童组织计划中的贷款额度通常在30到100美元不等。

  ? All S.K.I. programs have charged interest on the loans, primarily to get the entrepreneurs used to the concept of paying interest on borrowed money. Generally the rates have been modest (lower than bank rates).

  ?国际流浪儿童组织所有的计划都会对贷款收取利息。这样做的主要目的是使贷款人习惯为借来的钱支付利息。通常来讲,这种利息都很低(一般低于银行利率)。

  Conclusion

  There is a need to recognise the importance of access to credit for impoverished young people seeking to fulfil economic needs. The provision of small loans to support the entrepreneurial dreams and ambitions of youth can be an effective means to help them change their lives. However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical life skills as well as productive businesses.

  结论

  我们需要认识到,为贫困的年轻人提供贷款以满足他们的经济需求是十分重要的。通过提供小额贷款,实现年轻人的经商梦,是帮助他们改变人生的有效途径。然而,我们认为贷款必须与其他形式的援助一起开展,才能帮助年轻人在生意兴隆的同时,发展出其他关键的生存技巧。

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