摘要：上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2021年6月17日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
上海新航道雅思培训班 小编为大家整理了2021年6月17日雅思考试阅读机经真题答案回忆，每次考试后新航道雅思 小编会在1-2天内更新托福机经回忆
Topic An experiment to investigate the nature of language ability
P1 The paragraph is mainly about the introduction of the toplc. There is some information about scientific research about chimps and about how they leam languages.
P2 The paragraph mainly intoduce Matata, one of the chimps that researchers would conduct experiment. Matata, a female chimp of bonobo, a species hardly known before. Matata brought an infant with her, named Kanzi.
P3 Researchers try to teach Matata to understand human language and to point to symbols to communicate. They designed several ways in the experiment to observe Matata. During the session, Kanzi was llowed to play freely.
P4 Because of some performance of chimps, researchers decided to make greater efrts to make a more naturalistic condition.
P5 This paragraph begins to descrbe the experiment of Kanzi. Kanzi was taught together with the other two chimps , one from its own species, the other from a different species of chimps. Researchers were not insistent on Kanzi' s response. They would respond to Kanzi when it responds.
P6 Researchers mainly used spoken languages to communicate with Kanzi, just as communicate with small children, except that they designed some signals such as gestures and”
P7 The paragraph describes an experiment with Kanzi. A researcher gave Kanzi instructions by spoken languages from afar, while the other researcher stayed together with Kanzi with an earphone, so he would not give Kanzi any tips. This researcher was to observe whether Kanzi would understand the instructions and do as it was told to.
P8 The findings of the experiment include Kanzi understood complex sentence structure better than simple structure when he was told to do something new. For example, he was confused when hearing to take the orange and put it on the table in the chair house, but would do without hesitation when hearing put the orange to the table that is in the chair house. Kanzi eventually learned to use clear and consistent sentence structure
P9 The paragraph compares the performance of learmning languages between Kanzi and its two companions. Researchers find that Kanzi could understand 200 words when it was ten. The other two chimps, either the bonobo or the other species of chimps, were able to learn as electively as Kanzi.
P10 the paragraph is mainly about the conclusion researchers drew from the experiments. Protection is damaging to the development of..
The experiment with Matata
1. Matata is a female bonobo.
2. During the session with Matata, the researchers let Kanzi play.
3. "a number of shapes of...
4. The researchers try harder to .. that is naturalistic.
The experiment with Kanzi
5.”by only observation.
6. A dffrent species from Kanzi can learm in the same way as Kanzi.
The conclusion Savage-Rumbaugh drew from the experiments
7. Protection is harmful to
8. Researchers keep Kanzi apart from other chimps. F
9. Researchers use both verbal and non-verbal communication with Kanzi. T
10. Kanzi is always wlling to fllow the instructions from researchers. F
11. Researchers choose Kanzi' s favorite food during the session. NG
13. Kanzi finally learned to use fixed sequence. T
Odd and curious money
ancient Babylonians didn" t have computers and the intemet. Nevertheless accuracy in recording was still just as important to ensuring trust between parties. Because paper had not been invented yet, Babylonians used a type of clay tablet as currency with transaction records inscribed on the surface of the clay. The evolution of modem bank notes and check could be partly traced from this type of currency.
In ancient China, coins were the main forms of currency. These coins can be made of copper, iron, lead, gold and slver with dfferent shapes, weight and marks. Silver sycee(silver ingots) were a major form of currency in Chinese history for a period of more than a thousand years. Since the Song Dynasty. siver ingots legally became part of the currency system. Siver was not the only precious metal used in ancient China (as a matter of fact. it was relatively more valuable then than now) but was also taken as an exchange media, e.g, Money.
n Thailand, people used tiger claws as their major form of currency as they were hard to obtain. Later, tiger tongue shaped money were issued and produced in large amount, making it popular among collectors.
Dog teeth were sometimes used and even strung together so that it can have higher value.
In japan, the people in power (shogun) confiscaled the valuable metals and minted them into coins because he thought these were useless luxunies. This led to the assassination of
the shogun. Money trees were used in japan in trading with other island nations.
Aficans used whale teeth as curency and whale teeth can be made into necklace and only be worn by the tribal chiets. A Katanga Cross, also known as a handa in some local languages, is a cast copper cross that was previously used as currency in parts of what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from the 19th to 20th centuries, although its use for bride purchase. Katanga crosses were made in various sizes, but typically measure 200 millimeters in length and weigh approximately 1 kilogram. These crosses were made by digging mould in the sand and pouring liquid metal into the mould.
B. Silver coin
C. Silver ingot
15. What did the author say about tiger claws money?
B. it was hard to acquire
16. Why did Thailand government used bllting money as a form of currency?
C. standard coins were not available
17. What happen when dog teeth were strung together?
Value became increased
18. How was a kakanga cross made?
C pouring liquid metal into mould shaped by sand
24. Kakanga cross钱币G
25. 非洲刚果钱币 D
The Secret Sounds of Elephants
九分达人6 Test5 Passage3 Elephant Communication
O Connell-Rodwell, a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, has traveled t Namibia's first-ever wildlife reserve to explore the mystical and complicated realm of elephant communication. She, along with her colleagues, is part of a scientific revolution that started Most 20 years ago. This revolution has made a stunning revelation: elephants are capable of
| communicating with each other over long distances with low-frequeney sounds. also known as infrasounds, which are too deep for humans to hear,
As might be expected, African elephants able 10 detect seismic sound may have something to do with their cars. The hammer bone in an elephant's inner ear is proportionally huge for a mamma! but it is rather normal for animals that use vibrational signals. Thus, it may be a sign that suggests clephants can use scismic sounds to communicate.
Other aspeets of elephant anatomy also support that ability, First, their massive bodies, which enable them to give out low-frequeney sounds almost as powerful as the sound a jet makes during takeoff, serve as ideal frames for reeiving ground vibrations and transmitting them to the inne ear. Second, the elephant's toe bones ane set on a fly pad, which might be of help when focusing v ibrations from the ground into the bone. Finally, the elephant has an enormous brain that sits in the cranial cavity behind the eyes in line with the audiory canal. The front of the skull is riddled with sinus cavities, which might function as resonating chambers for ground vibrations.
It remains unclear how the elephants delect such vibrations, but OConnell-Rodwell raises a point that the pachyderms are "listening with their trunks and feet instead of their I ears.
The elephant trunk may just be the most versatile appenduge in nature. Iis uilisation encompasses drinking. bathing. smeling. feeding and scralching Both trunk and feet contain two ypes of merve endings that are sensitive 10 pressure-one detects infrasonic vibration, and another responds to vibrations higher in frequencies. As OConnell-Rodwel sees, this research has a boundless an unpredictable future. Our work is really interfaced of gcophysics, neurophysiology and ecology, she says. 'We 're raising questions that have never even been considered before.'
It has been well-known to scientists that seismic communication is widely observed among small animals, such as spiders, scorpions, insects and quite a lot of vertebrate species like white-lipped frogs, blind mole rats kangaroo rats and golden moles. Nevertheless OConnell-Rodwell first argued that a giant land animal is also sending and reeiving seismic signals, 1 used to lay a male planthopper on a stem and replay the clling sound of a female, and then the male one would exhibit the same kind of behaviour that happens in clephants- - he would freeze, then press down on his legs, move forward a lte,t then stay stll again. I find it so fascinating, and it got me thinking that perhaps auditory communication is not the only thing that is going on.
Scientists have confirmed that 37 an elephants capacity to communicate over long distance is essential for survival, especially in places like Etosha, where more than 2, 400 savanna elephants range over a land bigger than New Jersey. It is already difficult for an elephant to find a mate in such a vast wild land, and the elephant reproductive biology only complicates it. Breeding herds also adopt low-frequency sounds to send alerts regarding predators. Even though grown-up elephants have no enemies else than human beings, baby elephants are vulnerable and are susceptible to lions and hyenas attack. At the sight of a predator, older ones in the herd will clump together to form protection before running away.
We now know that elephants can respond to warning calls in the air, but can they detect signals transmitted solely through the ground? To look into that matter, the research team designed an experiment in 2002, which used electronic devices that enabled them to give out signals through the ground at Mushara. The outcomes of our 2002 study revealed that elephants could indeed sense waming signals through the ground, 'O Connell-Rodwell observes
Last year, an experiment was set up in the hope of solving that problem. It used three different recordings- -theI 994 warning call from Mushara, an ant-predator call recorded by scientist Joyce Poole in Kenya and a made-up warble tone.“The data I've observed to this point implies that the elephants were responding the way I always expected. However, the fascinating finding is that the anti-predator call from Kenya, which is unfamiliar to them, caused them to gather around, tense up and rumble aggressively as well but they didn't always flee. I didn't expect the results to be that clear-cut.'
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