1. Purpose of events: to celebrate the organisation's last 25 years.
2. Approximate number of guests : 180
3. Venue required : the conference room
4. date: June 13
Main causes choices
5. non-vegetarian: chic ken
Table arra ignment:
6. Cafe style
7. A microphone
8. A projector
9. Won't need us to provide any music
10. Ovemight accommodating: approximately ten twin _rooms
looking for jobs
11. Go to job center in the morning because
A. less crowded
B. more jobs are available
C. more staff
12. To improve the service, the job C enter recently provide
A. special appointments for the disabled
B. shorter waits before a ppointments
C. longer appointment if necessary
13. People can join“Drop in" ses sion when
A. witing CV
B. choosing careersg
C. illing the application forms
14. What kind of additional service is free of charge
A. photocopy document
B. use computers
C. borrow DVD
15. Funding is available about
A. IT training courses
B. Business courses
C. Courses on communication skills
16. Most people who came to job center felt they
A. advanced their C areer
B. had higher income
C. improved their professional skills
A employer's details
B job description
C legal support
E qualfcation required for the job
F training opportunity
17. files A
18. self-help sheets D
19. occupational profles B
20. glossy booklet F
旧题 Archeological excavation
21. How did xx and xx feel before they go to the activities.
A lack of motivation.
B they were enthusiastic
C they were confused
22. After attending... what discovery... xx and xx are mostly surprised about?
B careful about the record
C photographs are important
23. What did women find
24. What did xx and xx say about the people they studied?
A they were eating various food
B fishing is the main industry
C not as tall as people today
25. What did xx and xx say about the people they worked with?
A from different countries
B work hard
C young and enthusiastic
A taking soil sample
B save for future research
D labeling them
E record sheet
F use unit number
H looking for tools
I make comprehensive plan
26. search for,
and dean xoxx.
27. ask leader for.
Cities became the habitat of wild animals; it is necessary for us to preserve wild species.
Two major threats:
Moss, lichen and 2. insects
Some old buildings: 3. walls _of the gardens
Birds in cities
In London, falcon feed at 4. night
Seagull use trash for 5. nests
Adaptation of human
10 ,000 years ago, human lived in rural areas, based on 6. agriculture
Plant 7 trees
Invite volunteers to do some 8. surveys
Because they spread 9.diseases in most polluted areas.
Some animals like rats, dangers to human 10.health
People & Animal
Pets and animals
Work & study
Getting up early
Happiest New year
Sky and stars
Public parks or gardens
Wallet and purse
Technology at work
Public parks and gardens
People & Animal
Describe your favorite singer or actor喜欢的歌手或演员
Describe a person who loves to do social work社会工作
Describe awriter you would like to meet 作家
Describe a person who understands your feelings and emotions懂你的人
Describe a person who you think wears unusual clothes/special costumes穿着奇怪的人
Describe someone who is older than you that you admire尊敬的长者
Describe a personwho likes to help others乐于助人
Describe a personyou know who is polite礼貌的人
Describe a poltian you know你 了解的政治家
Describe a person who gave a clever solution to a problem给出聪明解答的人
Describe a creative person whose work you admire你尊敬的有创造力的人
Describe a foreign person who you have heard or known that you think is interesting你认识的有趣的外国人
Describe a famous athlete you know你知道的有名的运动员
Describe a musical person that you like喜欢的音乐人
Describe a person who impressed you the most in your primary school小学印象最深的人
Describe a beautiful woman or men you have seen漂亮的人
Describe a visitor in your home你家 里的访问者
Describe a busines sman you admire你尊敬的商人
Describe an argument with your friend与朋友的争吵
Describe a time when you helped a friend帮助朋友的经历
Describe a time when you lost your way迷路
Describe an occasion when many people were smiling微笑
Describe an occasionwhenyou were not alowed to use your mobile phone不允许用手机
Describe an event when you tried to do something but not successful.努力做了但没有成功的事
Describe a plan in your life (that is not related to work or study计划:
Describe a leisure activity near/ on the sea that you wantto try水上活动
! Describe time when you shared something with others (or another person) 分享
Describe an occasion when you ate something for the first time第1次吃某种东西
Describe a live sport match that you have watched现场体育比赛
Describe a time you had to wait in line fora long time排长长的队
Describe a time you had to encourage someone to do something he or she didnt enjoy doing鼓励别人做不喜欢的事情
Describe a time when it is important to tell your friend the truth 告诉朋友事实
Describe a time whenyou had to use your imagination用想象力
Describe an activity that you do after school/work课后活动
Describe a time when you got close to wild animals.接近野生动物
Describe leisure activities at sea side海边的休闲活动
Describe a failure experience失败的经历
Describe a time when you got up early早起的经历
Describe a time you were friendly to someone you didn't like对不喜欢的人友好
Describe a bicydle/ motorcycle/ car trip you would like to go喜欢的自行车/摩托车汽车旅行
Describe a difficult decision you once made曾经做过的困难的决定
Describe an activity you usually do that wastes your time经常 做的浪费时间的事
Describe an activity you usually do when study/work ends工作或者学习后做的事
Describe a time when you waited for something special that would happen等待可能发生的特别的事
Describe a skill that was dificult foryouto leam很难学习的技术
Describe a time when you were misunderstood被别人误解的时候
Describe a plan in your life (that is not related to work or study)和工作 学习无关的计划
Describe a piece of equipment that is the most important one in your family家中重要设备
Describe a natural talent (like sports, music and so on) you want to improve提高的天赋
Describe a puzzle(like a jigsaw or a cross word) you have solved谜语
Describe an art or craft activity (e.g. painting, woodwork, et.) that youhad (at school)艺术品
Describe an article on health you have read.关于健康的文章
Describe a toy you enjoyed playing when you were a kid.小时候喜欢的玩具
Describe a toy you liked in your childhood.童年 喜欢的玩具
Describe a thing that you bought and felt pleased about.满意的购物
Describe one thing you bought新 买的东西
Describe your favourite movie.喜 欢的电影
Describe a weather you like.喜欢的天气
Describe a topic you are interested in感 兴趣的话题
Describe a short jourmney you take regularly but you do not like常 规且不喜欢的短途旅行
Describe a kind of street food街边小吃
Describe an activity you usually do when study/workends工作或者学习结 束后做的活动
Describe an exciting book that you enjoy reading-本 喜欢读的兴奋的书
Describe an item on which you spent more than expected花费 很多买的东西
Describe your favorite movie or film最喜欢的电影
Describe a good service you received得到的好的服务
Describe a habit your friend got that you want to develop想发 展的朋友有的习惯
Describe a town or a city where you would like to live in the future 想居住的城镇
Describe a tall building in your city you like or dislike高楼
Describe a place you visited that has been affected by pollution污染的地方
Describe a quiet place you like to spend your time in安静的地方
Describe a place (not your home)where you are able to relax放松的地方
Describe someone's home you like but don't want to live in.不喜欢的家
Describe a company where you live that employs a lot of people大公司
Describe a outdoor market户 外市场
Describe a cafe you like to visit。喜欢去的咖啡店
Describe a place you visited on vacation去度假的地方
Describe a place that is crowded and lively拥挤热闹的地方
Describe a piece of local news that people are interested in本地新闻
Describe a law on environmental protection环保法律
Describe a time when you found out something interesting on the social media在社交媒体的趣事
Describe a skill that you think you can teach other people.教别人技能
Describe a perfect job you would like to have完美的工作
Describe a time you feel bored.感觉无聊的时刻
Describe a law should be made应该制定的法律
Describe a good service you received得 到的好的服务
Describe a habit your friend has and you want to develop朋友有的好习惯
A. Koalas are just too nice for their own good. And except for the occasional baby taken by
birds of prey, koalas have no natural enemies. In an ideal world, the life of an arboreal couch
potato would be perfectly safe and acceptable.
B. Just two hundred years ago, koalas flourished across Australia. Now they seem to be in
decline, but exact numbers are not available as the species would not seem to be 'under
threat'. Their problem, however, has been nan, more specifically, the white man. Koala and
aborigine had co-existed peacefully for centuries.
C. Today koalas are found only in scatered pockets of southeast Australia where they
seem to be at the risk on several fronts. The koala's only food source, the eucalyptus tree，
has declined. In the past 200 years, a third of Australia's eucalyptus forests have
disappeared. Koalas have been killed by parasites, chlamydia epidemics and a
tumour-causing retro-virus. And every year 11000 are killed by cars, ironically most of them
in wildlife sanctuaries, and thousands are klled by poachers. Some are also taken ilally
as pets. The animals usually soon die, but they are easily replaced.
D. Bush fires pose another threat. The horrific ones that raged in New South Wales recently
Killed between 100 and 1000 Koalas. Many that were taken into sanctuaries and shelters
were found to have burnt their paws on the glowing embers .But zoologists say that the
species should recover. The Koalas will be aided by the eucalyptus, which grows quickly
and is already burgeoning forth after the fires. So the main problem to their survival is their
slow reproductive rate - they produce only one baby a year over a reproductive lifespan of
about nine years.
E. The latest problem for the species is perhaps more insidious. With plush, grey fur, dark
amber eyes and button nose, koalas are cuddliness incamate Australian zo0s and wildlife
parks have taken advantage of their uncomplaining atitudes, and charge visitors to be
photogr aphed hugging the furry bundles. But people may not realise how cruel this is, but
because of the koala's delicate disposition, constant handling can push an already
precariously balanced physiology over the edge.
F. Koalas only eat the foliage of certain species of eucalyptus trees, between 600 and 1250
grams a day. The tough leaves are packed with cellulose ，tannins, aromatic oils and
precursors of toxic cyanides. To handle this cocktail, koalas have a specialised digestive
system. Cellulose-digesting bacteria in the caecum
break down fibre, while a specially
adapted gut and liver process the toxins. To digest their food property, koalas must sit still for
21 hours every day.
G. Koalas are the epitome of innocence and inoffensiveness. Although they are capable of
ripping open a man's arm with their needle-sharp claws, or giving a nasty nip, they simply
wouldn't. If you upset a koala, it may blink or swallow, or hiccup. But attack? No way! Koalas
are just not aggressive. "They use their claws to grip the hard smooth bark of eucalyptus
H. They are also very sensitive,. and the slightest upset can prevent them from breeding,
cause them to go off their food, and succumb to gut infections. Koalas are stoic creatures
and put on a brave face until they are at death's door. One day they may appear healthy, the
next they could be dead. Captive koalas have to be weighed daily to check that they are
feeding properly. A sudden loss of weight is usually the only warning keepers have that their
charge is il. Only two keepers plus a vet were allowed to handle London Zoo's koalas, as
these creatures are only comfortable with people they know. A request for the koala to be
taken to Beet the Queen was refused because of the distress this would have caused the
marsupial. Sadly. London's Zoo no longer has a koala. Two years ago the female koala died
of a cancer caused by a retrovirus. When they come into heat, female koalas become more
active, and start losing weight, but after about sixteen days, heat ends and the weight piles
back on. London' s koala did not. Surgery revealed hundreds of pea-sized tumours.
I. Almost every z00 in ; Australia has koalas-the marsupial has become the Animal
Ambass ador of the nation, but nowhere outside Australia would handling by the public be
allowed. Koala cuddling screams in the face of every rule of good care. First, some zoos
allow koalas to be passed from stranger to stranger, many children who love to squeeze.
Secondly, most people have no idea of how to handle the animals: they like to cling on to
their handler, all in their own good fime and use his or her arm as a tree. For such reasons,
the Association of Fauna and Marine parks, an Australian conservation society is
campaigning to ban koala cuddling. Policy on koala handling is determined by state
goverment authorities. "And the largest of the numbers in the Australian nature
Conservation Agengy, with the aim of instituting national guidelines. Following a wave of
publicity, some z00S and wildlife parks have stopped tuming their koalas into photo.
1. The main reason why koala declined is that
A by captivity
B by diseases they got
C killed on the road
D low birth rate
2. How can koalas fully digest their food?
A toxic substance in the leaves
B organs that dissolve the fibres
C remaining inactive for a period to digest
D eating eucalyptus trees
3. What would koalas do when facing the dangerous situation?
A show signs of being offended
B counter attack furiously
C use sharp dlaws to rip the man
D fake death
4. In what ways Australian zo0s exploit koalas?
A make them as "animal ambassador"
B put them on the trees as a symbol
C allow tourists to cuddle the koalas
D establish a koala campaign
5. What does the author think about the government policy on Koalas?
A introduce koala protection guide lines
B close some of the zoos
C encourage people to resist visiting the zo0s
D persuade the public to le am more knowledge
6. settlers are the main cause for Koalas decline.
7. Koalas are found in most of the places in Australia.
8. the eucalyptus trees haven't recover from recent fire. No
9. Koalas will fight each other over food.
10. It is not easy to notice that koalas are il.
11. Koalas are easily infected with human contagious disease. Not Given
12 Koalas like to hold a person's arm rather than being held.
From your opinion this article wittenby
A a journalist who write for magazine
B a z00 keeper in London Zoo.
C a student write forhis essay
D a government oficial who studies koalas to establish a law
Topic All about chocolate
All about chocolate
Chocolate is the best-known food that nobody knows anything about it. This article reveals
the mystery of the bittersweet food.
A. When most of us hear the word chocolate, we picture a bar, a box of bonbons, or a
bunny. The verb that comes to mind is probably "eat," not "drink," and the most apt adjective
would seem to be "sweet." But for about 90 percent of chocolate's long history, it was strictly
a beverage, and sugar didn't have anything to do with it.
B. The terminology can be a lttle confusing, but most experts these days use the term
"cacao" to refer to the plant or its beans before processing,"I often call chocolate the
best- known food that nobody knows anything about," said Alexandra Leaf, a self described
"chocolate educator" who runs a business called Chocolate Tours of New York City. The
term“chocolate" refers to anything made from the beans, she explained. "Cocoa" generally
refers to chocolate in a powdered form, although it can also be a British form of "cacao.'
Etymologists trace the origin of the word "chocolate" to the Aztec word' xocoatl," which
referred to a bitter drink brewed from cacao beans. The Latin name for the cacao tree,
Theobeomacacao , means "food of the gods."
C. Many modem historians have estimated that chocolate has been around for about 2000
years, but recent research suggests that it may be even older. In the book The True History
of Chocolate, authors Sophie and Michael Coe make a case that the earliest linguistic
evidence of chocolate consumption stretches back to three or even four millennia, to
pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica such as the Olmec.
D. Last November, anthropologists from the University of PennsyIvania announced the
discovery of cacao residue on pottery excavated in Honduras that could date back as far as
1400 B.C. It appears that the sweet pulp of the cacao fruit, which surrounds the beans, was
fermented into an alcoholic beverage of the time.
E. It's hard to pin down exactly when chocolate was born, but it's dlear that it was cherished
from the start. For several centuries in pre-modern Latin America, cacao beans were
considered valuable enough to use as currency. One bean could be traded for a tamale,
while 100 beans could purchase a good turkey hen, according to a 1 6th-century Aztec
document.Both the Mayans and Aztecs believed the cacao bean had magical, or even
divine, properties, suitable for use in the most sacred rituals of birth, marriage and death.
According to the book The Chocolate Connoisseur, Aztec sacrifce victims who felt too
melancholy to join in ritual dancing before their death were often given a gourd of chocolate
(tinged with the blood of previous victims) to cheer them up.
F. Sweetened chocolate didn't appear until Europeans discovered the Americas and
sampled the native cuisine. Legend has it that the Aztec king Montezuma welcomed the
Spanish explorer Hemando Cortes with a banquet that indluded drinking chocolate, having
tragically mistaken him for a reincamated deity instead of a conquering invader. Chocolate
didn't suit the foreigners' taste buds at first- one described it in his writings as“a bitter drink
for pigs"- -but once mixed with cane sugar, or if it is available, honey, it quickly became
popular throughout Spain. By the 1 7th century, chocolate was a fashionable drink throughout
Europe, believed to have nutritious, medicinal and even aphrodisiac properties. But it
remained largely a privilege of the rich until the invention of the steam engine made mass
production possible in the late 1700s.
G. In 1828, a Dutch chemist found a way to make powdered chocolate by removing about
half the natural fat (cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, pulverizing what remained and
treating the mixture with alkaline salts to cut the bitter taste. His product became known as
"Dutch cocoa," and it soon led to the creation of solid chocolate. The creation of the first
modern chocolate bar is credited to Joseph Fry, who in 1847 discovered that he could make
a moldable chocolate paste by adding melted cacao butter back into Dutch cocoa. By 1868,
a lttle company called Cadbury was marketing boxes of chocolate candies in England. Milk
chocolate hit the market a few years later, pioneered by another name that may ring a
H. In modem society,additives and sugars were added to cacao, more like candies than
I. The United States accounts for 20% of the world's chocolate consumption. Women [91%]
prefer to eat chocolate more than men [87%]. The average person consumes 11 kilograms
Which paragraph contains the following information?
14.a reference to the economic worth of cacao beans at one point in the past
15.an indication of general consumption of chocolate in modern society
16.a reference to the ingredient change of modem chocolate
17.an account of first opinion of Europeans on chocolate
19. word,used to describe A
22. old ceramics
A Alexandra Leaf
B Sophie and Michael Coe
F Joseph Fry
Europeans first thought chocolates were bitter, but with the combination of sugar or__ _23___
it became popular in European. However, it is only the food of the_ 24___ _until the late
In the early years of 1800s, a_ 25_
made powdered chocolate through extracting
_26___ and added to specific salts.
Case study of fle xible working: Frank Russell Company
CASE STUDY IN FLEXIBLE WORKING: FRANK RUSSELL COMPANY
A. Two phrases that Frank Russell Company uses to identify itself also suggest why flexible
work options are a perfect fit for this American financial services firm. The sun never sets in
Russell' means this 24-hour, multi-country organizations' flexible work hours are essential to
conducting its business. "Employees first, dlients second' expresses the bottom line worth
that management sees in employee satisfaction and creating an excellent work environment
that indludes opportunities to work from home. Telework, (ie. working away from the
traditional office) compressed workweeks and flextime serve Rusell both as strategic
business tools and valued employee benefits. 'Of we have happy staff frst, we will have
happy dlient,' says Mike Phillips, the company's chief executive .
B. Flexible work options are offered in all departments, but the level and type of use vary
widely among the 970 employees based at the company's headquaters in Tacoma,
Washington State. In. the early 1990s, several work groups pioneered various forms of
flexible working, induding telework. As the programs spread, management discovered one
size does not ft all. Rather than attempt to cover every possibity, Russell now provides
general guidelines under which departments customize plans to accommodate individuals'
C. Implementing telework becomes less of a leap when a company's staf and clients are
already scattered around the world. Pam Johnson, Manager of Intemational Assignments,
works in Tacoma but reports to a supervisor based in London. She is responsible for
transfers of staff from. one country to another, including negotiating the terms, shipping
belongings and obtaining work permits. She works from home several times a month.
answer emails.' Johnson says she is a more loyal employee because of the combination of
benefits, flexibility and trust her employer offers. 'I've been here 11 years. Once in a while
wonder if I should look elsewhere, but the opportunity to flex my hours and work at home are
part of the formula that always ends up on the Russell side.
D. Email and technology such as remote network access not only transformed the office
environment and the communication abilities between branch offices, they supported the
growth of telework. Mike Phillips is as reliant on email and remote access as anyone,
regardless of whether he is working in Singapore, Tacoma or from home. 'Email is our
primary means of communication,' Pilips says. 1 can get up two hours early Singapore and
respond to 20 emails from associates around the world or send a company-wide memo from
E. The ability to vary start times or work the longer days of a compressed workweek are a
way of doing business at Russell. An earlier start or a longer day increases telephone
communication with international staff. In addition, since the New York Exchange opens at 9
a.m, traders on the West Coast need to start by 6 a.m local time. Another group, which
provides desktop computer support, finds four 10-hour days make it easier to accomplish
some tasks before or after employees need to use their computers.
F. The larger consulting department offers compressed workweeks to administrative staff.
Administrative Assistant Jean Boelk works different proportions of altermate weeks in order
to receive one extra day off every other week. She is part of team of four administrative staff
who jointy support a work group of four executives. People are more willing to help each
other because we're dependent on each other on our days off, Boelk says. Increasing the
hours of coverage, plus the idea of cross-training and shared work, results in less overtime.
So long as coverage is adequate, staff can change days off from one pay period to the next.
G. What motivates teleworkers is usually a combination of work and personal needs. Senior
Technical Analyst Scott Boyd, who is in the Computer Operation section, works at home
twice a month. Boyd's job involves responding to telephone requests, and in the ffice it's
hard to work longer than 10 minutes without getting interrupted by the phone. lt's an
incredible relief to be so productive for one day at home,'he says.
H. Anumber of managers also find that working at home improves their overall
performance. Sales and Marketing Services Manager Tricia O'Connell works at home
approximately two days a month. She gives staff her home telephone number and advance
notice of her plans, then checks voice mail every half hour and email every hour from home.
In addition, she schedules weekly meetings in her office with each of eight members of her
team to discuss challenges and encourage top performance. 'This means I am more able to
focus on staff when it counts,' she says.I
In the end, management asks two questions
when making decisions about work option requests: 1) Will it improve overall employee
satisfaction or job performance? and 2) Will it hurt performance of duties in some way that it
not acceptable or is not offset by other improvements? For Frank Russell Company, the
answers these questions show that flexible working is highly satisfactory for business.
List of Headings
Flexible working meets differing business needs
ii The disadvantages of flexible working
The process of organising flexible working has changed
iv Involving dlients in deciding how best to serve them
Technical developments have facilitated flexible working
The cost/beneft analysis of flexible working
vi Flexible working increases co-operation among staff
ix Flexible working encourages commitment to the company
The workforce is the company's top priority
xi It's easier to get on with the work at home
28. Paragraph B
29. Paragraph C
30. Paragraph D
31. Paragraph F
32. Paragraph G
33. Paragraph H
34. Paragraph I
List of Staff
A. Mike Phillips
B. Pam Johnson
C. Jean Boelk
D. Scott Boyd
E. Tricia O'Connell
35. provides contact details when working out of the office
is convinced that staff feelings have an impact on company
37 performance has responsibilities which are shared with certain colleagues C
38. The Frank Russell Company aims to ensure that staff gain a sense of satisfaction from
39. Mike Phillip mostly uses emails to contact staff.
40. In the consulting department flexible working reduces the amount of overtime done by
Type of questions 柱状图
The chart below shows the production and consumption of rice in seven different
countries in 2008. (million tons)
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Type of questions 权衡利弊类
Many people use social media every day to get in touch with other people and news
events. Do you think the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
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