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剑桥雅思阅读4Test1阅读passage1译文

2017年03月26日 12:07来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:剑桥雅思阅读4Test1阅读passage1译文

剑桥雅思阅读4Test1阅读passage1译文

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  剑桥雅思4Test2阅读passage2原文+译文:澳大利亚的另类疗法

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  剑桥雅思阅读4Test1阅读passage3译文-盲人与视觉符号

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  Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. For example, one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes — about the duration of a normal classroom period. In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage, it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests — what and where they are, why they are important, what endangers them — independent of any formal tuition. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken.

  无论大人还是孩子都经常会遇到这样的报道,那就是热带雨林正在以惊人的速度消失。打个比方,孩子们很容易就能理解这样一个图例,即平均每四十分钟,也就是一节课的时间内,世界上就会有相当于一千个足球场大小的热带雨林遭到破坏。面对媒体频繁且生动的报道,也许不需要任何正规的教育,孩子们就能够形成一系列有关热带雨林的观点:比如说雨林是什么,位置在哪里,为什么如此重要,又是什么在威胁它们等等。当然,这些观点也很有可能是错的。

  Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about ‘pure’, curriculum science. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. Sometimes this information may be erroneous. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.

  许多研究表明孩子们对于在学校里学到的科学知识心存误解。这些误解不是孤立存在的,而是组成了一个尽管多层面却十分有条理的概念体系,这一点使得该体系本身及其所有的组成观点更加难以攻破,有些观点本身甚至就是错误的,但是也正是这样,它们反而更容易被改动。这些错误观点正是由于孩子们从大众煤体上吸收了信息而形成的。有时连这些信息本身都是错误的。学校似乎也没能够给们提供一个再度阐述自己观点的机会,因此宠师及其他学生也不能帮助其检验及纠正这种错误观点。

  Despite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests, little formal information is available about children’s ideas in this area. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools.

  尽管媒体对于热带雨林所遭受的破坏做了大量的报道,但是有关孩子相关观点的信息却少之又少。所以,目前这项研究的目的就是要给教师提供这样的信息来帮助他们设计自己的教学策略,以便帮助学生构筑正确的观点,置换他们的错误概念,并在学校中展开环保研究项目。

  The study surveys children’s scientific knowledge and attitudes to rainforests. Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. The most frequent responses to the first question were descriptions which are self-evident from the term ‘rainforest’. Some children described them as damp, wet or hot. The second question concerned the geographical location of rainforests. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Africa (given by 43% of children), South America (30%), Brazil (25%). Some children also gave more general locations, such as being near the Equator.

  该项研究调査了孩子有关热带雨林的科学知识以及态度。研究要求一些中学生填写一份包含了五个简答题的调査表。对于第一个问题,最常见的解答就来自“热带雨林”这一名称所附带的不言自明的含义。有些孩子把雨林描述成一个又潮又湿或闷热的地方。第二个问题是关于雨林的地理位置的,大多数答案都提到了国名或洲名:百分之四十三的孩子写了非洲,百分之三十写了美洲;还有百分之二十五的人认为热带雨林主要分布在巴西。有些孩子给出了如“赤道附近”这样更为宽泛的答案。

  Responses to question three concerned the importance of rainforests. The dominant idea, raised by 64% of the pupils, was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats, and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.

  第三道题目问及了热带雨林的重要性。百分之六十四的学生认为雨林为动物提供了栖身之所。较少的学生回答说雨林是植物的生长地。更少的学生提到了雨林中的土著居民。其中,有百分之七十的女孩子认为雨林是动物的家,而男孩子中只有百分之六十的人执此观点。

  Similarly, but at a lower level, more girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats. These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils’ views about the use and conservation of rainforests, in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life.

  相似的是,有百分之十三的女生认为热带雨林为人类提供了居所,而男生中有此想法的人只占百分之五。这些观点与先前就学生对热带雨林的开发及保护状况所做的研究的结果基本一致,该结果表明女生更容易表现出对小动物的同情,其观点也更容易将内在价值观基于动物而非人类生命上。

  The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly, more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities which are destroying rainforests, some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms such as ‘we are’. About 18% of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity.

  第四个问题问到了热带雨林遭到破坏的原因。值得庆幸的是,过半的学生(百分之五十九)都认为是人类的行为导致了这一破坏,有人甚至用“我们”这样的字眼将问题与自身联系起来。大概有百分之十八的学生将这一破坏归咎于滥砍滥伐。

  One misconception, expressed by some 10% of the pupils, was that acid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction; a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. Here, children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors. While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen, in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen, making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth.

  百分之十的学生错误地认为是酸雨导致了雨林的破坏,还有百分之十的学生觉得污染才是罪魁祸首。看来学生们是将热带雨林所受的破坏与上述因素对西欧森林的毁坏混为一谈了。百分之四十的学生认为热带雨林为人们提供了氧气,在某种程度上,这样的答案也包含着一个误解,那就是认为热带雨林的消失会减少大气中氧气的含量,最终导致地球上的大气不再适合人类呼吸。

  In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforest conservation, the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive. Only a few of the pupils (6%) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global warming. This is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important.

  在被问及雨林保护的重要性时,大部分学生只是认为人类离开雨林就无法生存。只有寥寥百分之六的人提到热带雨林的消失会导致全球变暖。鉴于媒体对这个问题长篇累牍的报道,这样的结果真是有点出人意料。还有些学生认为保不保护雨林根本无关紧要。

  The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Pupils’ responses indicate some misconceptions in basic scientific knowledge of rainforests’ ecosystems such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals, plants and humans and the relationship between climatic change and destruction of rainforests.

  研究结果表明,在学生们对雨林的观点中,某些观点明显占上风。在有些问题上,比如说热带雨林是植物、动物及人类的栖息地以及天气变化与雨林破坏之间的关系等,学生们的回答又表明了他们在一些基本科学知识上的误区。

  Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction. In other words, they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social, economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate, value and evaluate conflicting views. Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed, which is essential for these children as future decision-makers.

  学生们给出的答案并不能够表明他们了解热带雨林所遭受破坏的原因的复杂性。换言之,没有任何迹象表明他们了解热带雨林对人类来讲到底如何重要以及那些破坏行为背后所潜藏的复杂社会、经济及政治因素。然而,值得欣慰的是,其他类似环保研究的结果表明,大孩子们已经具备了鉴赏、理解以及评价矛盾观点的能力。而环保教育正是为这些能力的养成提供舞台,这一点对于孩子们成为未来的政策制定者是至关重要的。

 

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