摘要：新航道雅思为各位考生推荐复习材料-剑11 听力 Test3 Section4真题解析,本单元相关听力真题解析，请点击：雅思剑桥11听力Test2Section 1真题解析；雅思剑桥11听力Test2Section 2真题解析；雅思剑桥11听力Test2Section 3真题解析；雅思剑桥11听力Test2Section 4真题解析。
Well, businesses are finding that ethnography can offer them deeper insight into the possible needs of customers, either present or future, as well as providing valuable information about their attitudes towards existing products.
解题思路：利用customer needs进行定位，as well as 和题干中的and为同义表达。
They saw that the cooks had to check and recheck the contents, because although the measuring cups had numbers inside them, the cooks couldn't see these easily.
解题思路：cooks 和 measuring up可以定位听力原文，容易得到答案numbers，因为限定词为cups是复数形式，所以答案也是复数形式。
Because these customers paid in advance for their calls, they were eager to know how much time they'd spent on the call so far.
解题思路：because 引出的原因句为考点，wanted to check和eager to know为同义表达。
It was found that a large amount of their work involved communicating with colleagues in order to solve problems, but that they didn't have a standard way of exchanging information from spreadsheets and so on. So the team came up with an idea for software that would help them to do this.
解题思路：空格前面的develop在原文中同义替换为came up with，software 后面接了一个定语从句，这个部分和空格后面内容一致。
In another piece of research, a team observed and talked to nurses working in hospitals. This led to the recognition that the nurses needed to access the computer records of their patients, no matter where they were.
解题思路：nurses needed to access 是原文重现部分，很容易定位，computer records 替代了information，紧接着就出现了答案。
Occasionally, research can be done even in environments where the researchers can't be present. For example, in one project done for an airline, respondents used their smartphones to record information during airline trips, in a study aiming at tracking the emotions of passengers during a flight.
解题思路：预读题目时，可以确定答案为一个名词，定位到原文后听到emotion of passengers，即可判断emotions 为答案词。
The criteria according to which the participants are chosen may be something as simple as the age bracket they fall into, or the researchers may select them according to their income.
But it's absolutely crucial to recruit the right people as participants. As well as the criteria I've mentioned, they have to be comfortable talking about themselves and being watched as they go about their activities.
So what makes this type of research special is that it's not just a matter of sending a questionnaire to the participants, instead the research is usually based on first-hand observation of what they are doing at the time.
解题思路：转折词都是考点，在此题中，instead 表达强调和转折，based on first-hand observation 同义表达于有direct observation。
Most researchers estimate that 70 to 80 per cent of their time is spent not on the collecting of data but on its analysis - looking at photos, listening to recordings and transcribing them, and so on.
解题思路：原文中的 70 to 80 percent of their time is spent 是空处前 a lot of time is needed的同义表达，but 后的重心是此题的答案。