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首页>名师博文>张晓溪 雅思写作中的让步

张晓溪 雅思写作中的让步

2020年05月22日 03:14来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:写作部分一直是雅思考试通关路上的拦路虎,每个同学遇到的难题都不尽相同。我们都知道,雅思写作分成两个task,即task1图表作文描述和task2话题作文分析。图表作文是客观题,只要能筛选出重点数据,模仿一些惯用的表达,对于词汇和语法基础还不错的同学应该问题不大。但是对于话题作文的写作,很多考生会因为在评分标准的第二项-逻辑和衔接部分处理得不好,而不能拿到理想的分数。这篇文章会教大家一些让步和转折的方法,学会这个小技巧可以帮助我们解决很多写作过程中的逻辑bug.

写作部分一直是雅思考试通关路上的拦路虎,每个同学遇到的难题都不尽相同。我们都知道,雅思写作分成两个task,即task1图表作文描述和task2话题作文分析。图表作文是客观题,只要能筛选出重点数据,模仿一些惯用的表达,对于词汇和语法基础还不错的同学应该问题不大。但是对于话题作文的写作,很多考生会因为在评分标准的第二项-逻辑和衔接部分处理得不好,而不能拿到理想的分数。这篇文章会教大家一些让步和转折的方法,学会这个小技巧可以帮助我们解决很多写作过程中的逻辑bug.

PART1让步和转折5W

1什么是让步?

Think of good arguments from someone who holds the opposite view. How could you respond to that person?

“欲扬先抑”就是很典型的让步。再举个更简单的例子,父母在表扬你之前可能会先批评你,之后会有一个“但是”词,这个词会我们松一口气。接下来才表示他们真正想要表扬我们的意图。

2为什么写让步?

为什么要在议论文中加入让步呢?有两个功能。第一,体现出文章的全面性,事物没有绝对性,而且物极必反。如果正反都讨论,说明大家思考问题比较全面。除此之外,还可以体现批判性和辩证性的思维。在雅思写作中,不是所有题目都需要写让步段。但是如果能写好让步,不仅在思路上可以帮我们加分。在词汇和句子结构上更是如此,因为好的让步还需要有相关词汇和语法的支撑。

3什么题型可以写让步?让步放在文章哪个部分?

雅思什么题型需要用到让步呢?笔者认为几乎所有的绝对词和需要双边讨论的题目都可以用。让步可以分为让步段和让步句。如果是1到2句简短的让步,即让步句,可以用在文章的任何地方。除了正文,开头结尾也可以用。如果是让步段,可以用在中间段第一段或者最后一段。

4如何写让步?

让步句用一些表示让步的连词比如,although, despite,in spite of等就可以实现。但是让步段会更复杂,基本原则是,让步不能影响我方观点的表达。所以,让步段一般包含三个部分。第一,削弱语气。第二,适当拓展。第三,转折。即先承认对方观点的相对合理性,再陈述为什么合理,最后再推翻上述观点,给出我方观点更合理。第二个部分是陈述对方观点为什么合理,涉及的是支持句的拓展方法,本文不会具体讨论。下面主要讨论第一和第三个部分,即如何削弱语气和转折,并结合真题的例子去分析。


PART2例子分析

例1 Nowadays, a large amount of advertising is aimed at children. Some people think this can have negative effects on children and should be banned. To what extend do you agree or disagree? 20180811

这道题含有绝对词“be banned”,我们来看看下面的让步段。

Admittedly, being exposed to advertisements at a young age may encourage children to become material obsessed in their mind.…However, the negative influence mentioned above cannot justify a ban on all advertisements targeted at children as it also denies the chance to gain useful information contained in advertisements.

a 削弱语气Admittedly, being exposed to advertisements at a young age may encourage children to become material obsessed in their mind. 让步段用“admittedly”开头,引出下文。

削弱语气的词“may”表达一种可能性。相关的表达还有might, would, could, possible等词。

b 2句话左右的拓展,略

c However, the negative influence mentioned above cannot justify a ban on all advertisements targeted at children as it also denies the chance to gain useful information contained in advertisements.

转折部分用“however”作为衔接。使用的转折方法是,否定唯一性。先肯定合理性,“广告有副作用”,但是因为题干中的“be banned”太绝对,可以否定唯一性。虽然有坏处,但是不应该完全被禁止。

例2 The only way to solve the increasing crime rate of young offenders is to teach parents better parenting skills. Do you agree or disagree?20191010

Granted, parents with adequate parenting skills and can to a large extent help prevent children from committing crimes.…Nonetheless, parents’ guidance and regulation are not necessarily effective to lower the increasing rate of young criminals. Schools and governments should also take their responsibilities.

这个让步段,削弱语气的词是 “to a large extent”,即从程度上来削弱语气。相关的表达还有to some extent, to a certain degree等。父母如果提高parenting skills能从很大程度上减少犯罪,但是,仅仅父母的约束是不够的。还需要学校和政府的配合。含有绝对词的题目,可以用“否定唯一性”来反驳。

例3 Some people think the best way to solve traffic congestions in cities is to provide free public transport 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 20190121

Theoretically, providing 24/7 free public transport, could exert some positive outcomes for both individuals and the society. However, this approach would have more negative influences if it is carried out. One main disadvantage is the low-quality public service…Another problem is that this would be a great waste on public funds…

削弱语气的词是 “some”,即免费的公共交通确实有一些好处,从数量上来削弱语气。相关的表达有certain, a couple of等。但是话锋一转,这样做缺点更多,比如服务质量变差和浪费资源等。这里用到的转折的方法是,从角度和数量进行转折。

例4 Employers should give their staff at least a 4-week holiday a year to make employees better at their jobs. To what extend do you agree or disagree? 20190302

To a large extent, a 4-week paid vacation is preferable as employees could carry out many plans such as travelling, additional training and accompany family members…However, the downsides of offering a 4-week vacation should also be taken into account.

例5 In some countries, the difference in age between parents and children is generally greater than it was in the past. Do you think advantages outweigh disadvantages? 20190928

Admittedly, the main advantage of widening age gap is that it is beneficial for the young to have a higher level of living standard…Nevertheless, this notion is biased in some measure, ignoring the fact that considerate parenting and sufficient time for companion are indispensable apart from monetary factors in the fine growth of youngsters.

例4和例5都是从数量和角度上进行转折,即先让步,承认A有优点,但是缺点不能被忽略,甚至缺点更多。反之亦然,可以承认A有缺点,但是优点更多。

例6 New technologies have changed the way children spend their free time. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?20190214

Admittedly, we have to be aware of the potential negative impacts of high-tech products on students…However, if effective supervision and guidance is in place, children actually benefit a lot from playing with digital products.

先让步,承认我支持的观点有缺陷,即电子产品会对学生造成负面影响。再转折,问题可以通过有效的监督和指导,得到解决。事实上,我方观点更合理。这个转折方法即解决弥补法。

例7 Some people think that schools should select their pupils according to their academic ability. Others believe that young people with different abilities should be educated together. Discuss both sides and give your opinion. 20181208现实&未来

Admittedly, students would benefit a lot from learning in an environment with classmates who have different abilities…However, it is relatively difficult to manage a school with students being talented in different fields. At least, teachers would find it hard to make teaching plans that cater all students’ needs.

用“would”来削弱语气,承认对立面的合理性。确实和有着不同能力的学生一起学习,学生可以受益。但是,现实情况是,这样的课堂很难操作。这一转折方法是从意义上转,即现实是否可操作。

例8 Some people hold that we should spend a large amount of time and money on the protection of wild animals. Some people argue that they should be spent on human populations. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 20190223

It is without doubt that many serious problems we confront today should be addressed in a timely manner, in particular, those closely related to health and education…Despite the significance of financial supports to health-related issues, by no means should government cut off its expenditure on wild animal protection. Actually, in the long run, to protect wild animals means to maintain the balance of ecosystem which is equally, if not more, essential to human survival.

这也是从意义上转折,保护野生动物对未来的影响更深远。先承认人类目前面临的问题需要被解决,但是这并不意味政府应该缩减在动物保护上的经费支出。


PART3总结

通过part2对8个让步段的分析,我们对让步段有了更全面的了解。接下来,笔者会将常用的让步段的词句汇总,对削弱语气和转折的方法进行总结,并将它们运用到真题中。

1 削弱语气的方法

1 Admittedly, being exposed to advertisements at a young age may encourage children to become material obsessed in their mind.

2 Granted, parents with adequate parenting skills and can to a large extent help prevent children from committing crimes.

3 Theoretically, providing 24/7 free public transport, could exert some positive outcomes for both individuals and the society.

我们可以分析part2中的削弱语气的句子,总结出三类削弱语气的方法。

第一,从可能性上。相关的表达有might, would, could, possible等。

第二,从程度上。可积累这些短语,to some extent, to a certain degree等。

第三,从数量上。比如,some , certain, a couple of等。

2 转折的四种方法

第一,否定唯一性。

如果题目中有“must”, “best”, “only”等意义太绝对的词,肯定合理性,否定唯一性的方法去破题,是非常有效的。

常用的表达有

However, the negative influence mentioned above cannot justify a ban on all advertisements targeted at children。

Nonetheless, parents’ guidance and regulation are not necessarily effective to lower the increasing rate of young criminals.

第二,角度数量转折。

这种方法是最简单,最好操作的。 承认对立面的合理性,再转折我方更合理。可参考下面的句型:

However, this approach would have more negative influences if it is carried out.

However, the downsides of offering a 4-week vacation should also be taken into account.

Nevertheless, this notion is biased in some measure, ignoring the fact that…

第三,解决和弥补法。

这一方法在解决科技和教育类的话题中很好运用。即承认我方观点有缺点,但是这个缺点可以被弥补,问题可以得到解决。事实上,我方观点好处更多。

常用表达有:

However, if effective supervision and guidance is in place, children actually benefit a lot from playing with digital products.

第四,意义转折法。

承认对方观点合理,但是现实操作难,或者我方观点影响力更大。这种方法最难,而且并不适用于所有题。但是对于社会类话题,比如环保,科研相关的话题是比较好操作的。

可参考的句型如

However, it is relatively difficult to manage a school with students being talented in different fields. At least, teachers would find it hard to make teaching plans that cater all students’ needs.(现实难操作)

Despite the significance of financial supports to health-related issues, by no means should government cut off its expenditure on wild animal protection. Actually, in the long run, to protect wild animals means to maintain the balance of ecosystem which is equally, if not more, essential to human survival.(影响更深远)


PART4运用-综合练习

In some countries, many people choose to educate their children at home by themselves instead of sending them to school. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?20180426

这道题不包含绝对词,所以第一种转折方法即否定唯一性不太适用。我们可以尝试用不同的三种削弱语气的方法和剩下三种转折法来解同一道题。

方法二 角度数量转折

立场:学校教育好

让步 从可能性上might, would, could, possible

Admittedly, it is possible that home education could provide children with the most professional and appropriate training as the teaching plan is custom-tailored.

转折

参考句子However, the downsides of offering a 4-week vacation should also be taken into account.

句子运用

However, the downsides of offering children home-based education should also be taken into account.

方法三 解决和弥补法

立场:家庭教育好

让步:数量上some , certain, a couple of等

Admittedly, home education exerts certain negative impacts on individuals as this one-student-centered teaching fail to train their communicative and cooperation skills.

转折

参考句子:However, if effective supervision and guidance is in place, children actually benefit a lot from playing with digital products.

句子运用

However, if parents are professional enough to realize this issue, they would encourage their children to take part in various activities which enable students to improve interpersonal skills. Actually children benefit a lot from this custom-tailored training.

方法四 意义转折法

立场:学校教育好

让步:程度上 to some extent,to a certain degree

It is without doubt that home education could, to some extent, provide children with the most professional and appropriate training as the teaching plan is custom-tailored.

转折:

参考句子However, it is relatively difficult to manage a school with students being talented in different fields. At least, teachers would find it hard to make teaching plans that cater all students’ needs.

句子应用

However, it is relatively difficult to design a comprehensive teaching plan for children. At least, most parents, with limited time, resources and funds, would find it hard to afford this demanding mode of education.

关键词58341

我们今天从5个方面即what, why, when, where和how简单介绍了雅思中的让步,对8个让步段进行了分析,总结出了3种削弱语气和4种转折的方法。并结合这些方法和参考词句,对1道题进行了综合分析。雅思中的让步,大家学会了吗?


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新航道上海学校雅思、托福主讲。华南师范大学外国语言学及应用语言学硕士。英语专业八级,持有教师资格证,英语学术功底扎实,研究生期间就多次参与校级以上的学术研讨会、语用学教研等专业活动并发表论文。近7年一线教学经验,善于挖掘学生特点,并提供针对性的解决方案,高分学员频出。“有准备的人才会有机会,对待学习要有耐心和恒心。”这是张老师的学习理念,也是给予所有学员的真诚建议。


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