· describe a family business you know
· describe a job you want to have in the future
· Do you prefer to work for big companies or small companies?
· What are the advantages and disadvantages of family business?
· Why do some people keep changing their jobs?
· What should a good employer do?
刷过真题听力的同学应该有印象，剑9 Test 2 Section 4听力录音主要讲Business Culture (企业文化)，这篇听力填空题干相对简洁，答案也较好抓，所以同学们在做完听力题目之后多半没有好好去研究一下听力文本内容，但实际上这篇听力不仅给我们提供了应对“公司及工作”话题相关的口语思路，而且很多内容完全可以搬过来回答这些问题。
第一种企业文化是权力文化 Power Culture：
It’s usually found in small organizations. It’s the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective, and because control is in the hands of just one or two people, there aren’t many rules or procedures. Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations rather than formal meetings or written memos.
One of the benefits of this culture is that the organization has the ability to act quickly, so it responds well to threat, or danger on the one hand, and opportunity on the other.
On the negative side, this type of organization doesn’t always act effectively, because it depends too much on one or two people at the top, and then these people make poor decisions there is no one else who can influence them.
The kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy to take risks, and for whom job security (工作稳定度) is a low priority.
This type is usually found in large companies, which have lots of different levels in them. These organizations usually have separate departments that specialize in things like finance, or sales, or maintenance, or whatever. Each one is coordinated at the top by a small group of senior managers, and typically everyone’s job is controlled by sets of rules and procedures – for example, there are specific job descriptions, rules for discipline, and so on.
Benefits: its fixed costs (固定成本), or overheads as they’re known, are low in relation to its output(产出), or what it produces. In other words it can achieve economies of scale(规模经济：因经营规模大而获得的经济节约). Secondly, it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise(技术专业度) is important.
On the other hand, the culture is often very slow to recognize the need for change, and even slower to react.
It suits employees who values security, and who don’t particularly want to have responsibility.
例1：Do you prefer to work for big companies or small companies?
To be frankly, I haven’t got any first hand work experience, but I did read some articles concerning business studies during last semester, which may help me make a choice. I think I will choose to work for a small company after my graduation.
You know, in big companies, there are usually a lot of rules and regulations set to discipline employees, for example, if I need to apply for any resources, I have to go through different procedures and report to different managers. For an ambitious new graduate like me, what is even worse is that, when I get into a large company, I usually have to work in one specific position for a long time.
But a small company allows me to perform different tasks frequently, or even I am able to do different work every day. I really enjoy trying new things and taking risks. Another thing I like about small companies is the way of daily communication among colleagues. We can just have casual conversations whenever we have problems to discuss, which is quick and effective, unlike big companies always holding a formal boring meeting, which is not efficient and rather a waste of time.
例2：What are the advantages and disadvantages of family business?
Well, I have family members and some relatives working for some family business. Since I often hear them talk about their daily work, I got to know that most of those family businesses are small companies, which focus on a kind of power culture. By power culture, I mean, it is the owners of the company, usually one or two people, makes all the decisions.
Accordingly, one clear disadvantage is that when the boss makes a wrong decision, no one else dares to question him or her, thus it may lead to negative results which influence the company’s as well as the employees’ future development. For example, my cousin brother quitted his job a few months ago because his boss insisted to change the sales policy, which caused a huge loss of customers.
As the sales manager, my cousin brother was really frustrated and eventually chose to leave. On the other hand, since a family business usually has a limited number of employees following the boss, it has the ability to act quickly in performing daily tasks, and the work efficiency can be high, and this is quite a benefit.
例1：Why do some people keep changing their jobs?
回答思路之一：one of the reasons for people to change their jobs is, they realized that they don’t like the business culture of the company, such as the power culture. For example, 举一个亲人或朋友例子，类似于上文中我表哥辞职的例子。
例2：What should a good employer do?
回答思路之一：one of the things a good employer should do is to put the employees into right positions or assign them with the right tasks according to the their attributes and personal preferences. For example, if a person values job security and do not like to take risks, the employer should put him or her in administrative department instead of marketing or sales department.