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如何最大效率利用雅思真题预料? | 名师说第17期

2019年01月28日 10:42来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:新航道每周三的名师说栏目,特为广大烤鸭、托友而设专门请资深雅思、托福专家,以专题方式为大家讲解各类备考干货!有很多同学在备考雅思口语时,面临这样的困境:1)针对口语话题和问题(尤其是part 2&3),想不出思路观点2)词汇量不够,语言使用不流利。本期导师:代明燕,新航道上海雅思主讲2年英国学习及工作生活经历8年口语教学经历2018年度最受学生欢迎教师

新航道每周三的名师说栏目,特为广大烤鸭、托友而设专门请资深雅思、托福专家,以专题方式为大家讲解各类备考干货!

新航道上海学校雅思主讲

本期导师:代明燕

新航道上海雅思主讲

2年英国学习及工作生活经历

8年口语教学经历

2018年度最受学生欢迎教师

有很多同学在备考雅思口语时,面临这样的困境:

1)针对口语话题和问题(尤其是part 2&3),想不出思路观点

2)词汇量不够,语言使用不流利。

同学们都知道,每次口语考试的题库范围极广,课堂上难以涵盖全面,所以备考过程,除了好好上课,还需要同学们在课后做部分话题的素材准备和练习。

比如常驻口语题库中的“公司和工作”相关话题,近期就有两道part 2两道题:

· describe a family business you know

· describe a job you want to have in the future

对应的part3涵盖以下这些问题:

· Do you prefer to work for big companies or small companies?

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of family business?

· Why do some people keep changing their jobs?

· What should a good employer do?

这些问题都很抽象,对大部分还没有过工作经验的同学们来说,临场回答真就说不出几句,而且即使给时间准备,同学们很可能也没有思路,或难以言之有物。

所以今天就来分享一下:

如何巧利用雅思真题听力素材

来应对这些“公司和工作”相关的口语话题

刷过真题听力的同学应该有印象,剑9 Test 2 Section 4听力录音主要讲Business Culture (企业文化),这篇听力填空题干相对简洁,答案也较好抓,所以同学们在做完听力题目之后多半没有好好去研究一下听力文本内容,但实际上这篇听力不仅给我们提供了应对“公司及工作”话题相关的口语思路,而且很多内容完全可以搬过来回答这些问题。

我们先来看一下此篇听力部分录音内容原文:

第一种企业文化是权力文化 Power Culture:

It’s usually found in small organizations. It’s the type of culture that needs a central source of power to be effective, and because control is in the hands of just one or two people, there aren’t many rules or procedures. Another characteristic is that communication usually takes the form of conversations rather than formal meetings or written memos.

One of the benefits of this culture is that the organization has the ability to act quickly, so it responds well to threat, or danger on the one hand, and opportunity on the other.

On the negative side, this type of organization doesn’t always act effectively, because it depends too much on one or two people at the top, and then these people make poor decisions there is no one else who can influence them.

The kind of person who does well in this type of business culture is one who is happy to take risks, and for whom job security (工作稳定度) is a low priority.

这一段讲到权力文化的特征:通常是小企业,由一两个人主导,没有太多的管理规定或程序,平时的沟通方式是对话交谈而不是正式会议。这种企业文化的好处是,执行力行动力强,对威胁、危险及机会都能快速做出反应。但缺点是, 执行不一定有效,因为公司太过依赖于掌控权力的那么一两个人,如果他们做出糟糕的决定,公司其他人很难影响到他们。适合在这种企业文化中工作的人是喜欢冒险且不看重工作稳定度的人。

第二种企业文化是角色文化role culture:

This type is usually found in large companies, which have lots of different levels in them. These organizations usually have separate departments that specialize in things like finance, or sales, or maintenance, or whatever. Each one is coordinated at the top by a small group of senior managers, and typically everyone’s job is controlled by sets of rules and procedures – for example, there are specific job descriptions, rules for discipline, and so on.

Benefits: its fixed costs (固定成本), or overheads as they’re known, are low in relation to its output(产出), or what it produces. In other words it can achieve economies of scale(规模经济:因经营规模大而获得的经济节约). Secondly, it is particularly successful in business markets where technical expertise(技术专业度) is important.

On the other hand, the culture is often very slow to recognize the need for change, and even slower to react.

It suits employees who values security, and who don’t particularly want to have responsibility.

这一段讲到角色文化的特征:通常是大公司,有很多不同的层级,不同的部门,如财务部、销售部、产品维护服务部门等等,每个部门有高级经理来组织协调工作,工作受一系列的规定和程序控制,例如每个职位有具体的职位描述、约束罚惩等。此类企业的优势是,经营规模大所以固定成本相对比较低,尤其是在依赖技术专业度的商业市场中很容易成功。缺点是对行业变化的意识和反应都很慢。适合在这种企业文化中工作的人是看重工作稳定度及不太愿意承担责任的人。

由上文明显可以看出,标蓝部分的词句完全可以拿过来进行重组后回答部分口语问题。

例1:Do you prefer to work for big companies or small companies?

Example answer:

To be frankly, I haven’t got any first hand work experience, but I did read some articles concerning business studies during last semester, which may help me make a choice. I think I will choose to work for a small company after my graduation.

You know, in big companies, there are usually a lot of rules and regulations set to discipline employees, for example, if I need to apply for any resources, I have to go through different procedures and report to different managers. For an ambitious new graduate like me, what is even worse is that, when I get into a large company, I usually have to work in one specific position for a long time.

But a small company allows me to perform different tasks frequently, or even I am able to do different work every day. I really enjoy trying new things and taking risks. Another thing I like about small companies is the way of daily communication among colleagues. We can just have casual conversations whenever we have problems to discuss, which is quick and effective, unlike big companies always holding a formal boring meeting, which is not efficient and rather a waste of time.

例2:What are the advantages and disadvantages of family business?

Example answer:

Well, I have family members and some relatives working for some family business. Since I often hear them talk about their daily work, I got to know that most of those family businesses are small companies, which focus on a kind of power culture. By power culture, I mean, it is the owners of the company, usually one or two people, makes all the decisions.

Accordingly, one clear disadvantage is that when the boss makes a wrong decision, no one else dares to question him or her, thus it may lead to negative results which influence the company’s as well as the employees’ future development. For example, my cousin brother quitted his job a few months ago because his boss insisted to change the sales policy, which caused a huge loss of customers.

As the sales manager, my cousin brother was really frustrated and eventually chose to leave. On the other hand, since a family business usually has a limited number of employees following the boss, it has the ability to act quickly in performing daily tasks, and the work efficiency can be high, and this is quite a benefit.

上文中的听力语料内容不仅可以为我们提供口语问题的答题语言,还可以为我们提供口语问题的答题思路。

例1:Why do some people keep changing their jobs?

回答思路之一:one of the reasons for people to change their jobs is, they realized that they don’t like the business culture of the company, such as the power culture. For example, 举一个亲人或朋友例子,类似于上文中我表哥辞职的例子。

例2:What should a good employer do?

回答思路之一:one of the things a good employer should do is to put the employees into right positions or assign them with the right tasks according to the their attributes and personal preferences. For example, if a person values job security and do not like to take risks, the employer should put him or her in administrative department instead of marketing or sales department.

常言都说,学习的最高境界是融汇贯通,而巧用真题语料刚好可以帮同学们锻炼并实现这一点。所以下次练习听力的同时,记得多琢磨琢磨听力内容哦,其实真题听力中还有很多类似的可以用来练习其它口语话题的篇章。

 

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