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SAT语法详细知识点:介词(上)

2017年05月02日 03:37来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:介词又称作前置词,表示名词、代词等与句中其他词的关系,在句子中不能单独作句子成分。

  SAT语法详细知识点:介词(上)

  简述:

  又称作前置词,表示名词、代词等与句中其他词的关系,在句子中不能单独作句子成分。

  知识点1

  表示方位的介词有in, on, to

  In表示在某地范围内,to表示在某地范围内,on表示与某地相邻。如

  Shanghai lies in the east of China.

  Japan lies to the east of China.

  Mongolia lies on the north of China.

  知识点2

  表示计量的介词有at, for, by

  At 表示速度、价格,for 表示交换,以……为代价,by表示以……计

  It flies at about 900 kilos an hour.

  I sold my car at a high price.

  He sold the car for 500 dollars.

  They paid him by the month.

  Here eggs are sold by weight.

  知识点3

  表示材料的介词of, from, in

  Of成品能够看出原料,from成品已经看不出原料,In表示某种语言或者材料。如

  This box is made of paper.

  Wine is made from grapes.

  Please fill in the form in pencil first.

  They talk in English

  In指用材料不需要用冠词,而with表示用工具,要用冠词。比如

  Draw in pencil/ draw with a pencil

  知识点4

  表示工具或手段的介词by, with, on

  By表示用某种方式,多用于交通,with表示用某种工具,on表示以……方式,多用于固定词组。

  I went there by bus. / I went there in a bus.

  He broke the window with a stone.

  They talked on the telephone.

  She learns English on the radio/on TV.

  知识点5

  表示关于的介词of, about, on

  of仅仅是提到或者谈到的某人或者某事,about是关于某人或者某事的较详细的情况,on关于学术性或者严肃的事情。

  He spoke of the film the other day.

  He thought about his matter yesterday.

  Can you tell me something about yourself?

  It’s a textbook on the history of China.

  知识点6

  表示原因或者理由的介词for, at, from, of, with, by, because of

  For表示原因,经常和sorry, famous, punish, praise, thank, blame连用,如

  I am sorry for what I said to you.

  At表示情感变化的原因,意思是听到或者看到而,如

  He was surprised at the news.

  From表示外在的原因,比如车祸受伤等,如

  He died from the wound.

  Of表示内在的原因,比如病,饿等,如

  The old man died of hunger.

  With指生理上或者情感上的由外界到内心的原因,如

  Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.

  He was shaking with anger.

  By表示外部的,尤其是暴力或者无意中造成的某种结果的原因。如

  Her body was bent by age.

  She took your umbrella by mistake.

  Because of 表示引起结果的直接原因

  He retired last month because of illness/ because he ill.

  Owing to表示某种不良后果的原因,如

  Owing to the rain they could not come.

  Thanks to表示引起某种幸运结果的原因,如

  Thanks to John, we won the game.

  Out of表示动机的起因,可以看做“处于”

  He asked the question out of curiosity.

  Through表示因为局部原因影响全局

  The war was lost through bad organization.

  知识点7

  表示好像或者当做的介词有like, as

  Like表示“像……一样,其实是不是”,as”作为,其实也是”

  Peter the Great, like his country, was strong and proud.

  He talked to me as a father.

  知识点8

  表示支持或者反对的介词for, against

  Are you for my idea or against it?

  知识点9

  表示除了某人或者某物之外的介词besides, except

  Besides是包括后面提到的人或物在内的“除……以外”如

  Thirty students went to the cinema besides him.

  He is interested in tennis besides football.

  Except 是指不包括后面所提到的人或物在内的除去,如

  Everyone is excited except me.

  All the visitors are Japanese except him.

  注意except通常和表示全体的all和every连用,如果与other连用,只能用Besides如

  He had other people to take care of besides me.

  Except 是排除同类,except for是排除非同类。如

  The composition is very good except for a few spelling mistakes.

 

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