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AP政府与政治重要词汇分类表

2017年03月20日 09:55来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:

  AP政府与政治重要词汇分类表

  Government

  政府

  Politics

  Government

  Democracy

  Direct democracy

  Representative democracy

  Republic

  Legitimate

  Parliamentary system

  Presidential system

  A Congress

  A President

  The Judiciary

  The Constitution

  宪法

  Articles of Confederation

  Sovereignty

  Unicameral legislature

  Shay’s Rebellion

  Great (or Connecticut)Compromise

  Constitution

  Majority Rule

  Minority Rights

  To propose an Amendment

  To ratify an Amendment

  Some key facts

  Republic

  Judicial review

  Separation of powers

  Federalism

  Congress

  President

  Courts

  Checks and balances

  Faction

  Federalists

  Antifederalists

  Federalist Papers

  Coalition

  The Bill of Rights

  Ex Post Facto Law

  Writ of Habeas Corpus

  Bill of Attainder

  Amendment1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

  Amendment2 & 3

  Civil Liberties

  公民自由

  Bill of Rights

  Civil liberties

  Due-process clause

  Equal protection clause

  Incorporation

  Prior restraint

  Freedom of Expression

  Criminaland Civil Law

  Libel

  Free speech

  Symbolic speech

  Free-exercise clause

  Establishment clause

  Wall of separation

  Religious freedom

  Exclusionary rule

  Search warrants

  Probable cause

  The Miranda Rules

  CriminalJustice

  Good-faithexception

  Civil Rights

  公民权利

  Separate-but-equal doctrine

  Suspect classifications

  Strict scrutiny

  Reverse discrimination

  Equality of opportunities

  Affirmative action

  Civil Rights

  Affirmative Action

  Rightsfor Women

  Police powers

  Privacy and Abortion

  Gay Rights

  Federalism

  宪政主义

  Sovereignty

  Federalism

  Confederation

  Confederal system

  Nullification

  Dual federalism

  Grants-in-aid

  The States and the Constitution

  Categorical grant

  Blockgrant

  Mandates

  Conditions of aid

  Public opinion and the Media

  公益和媒体

  Public opinion

  Poll

  Random sample

  The Art of Public-Opinion Polling

  Sampling error

  Elite(political)

  New class

  Traditional middle class

  Gender gap

  Liberal

  Conservative

  Political ideology

  Political parties and Interest groups

  政党和利益团体

  Political party

  Interest group

  Faction

  Lobbyists

  National convention

  National committee

  Congressional campaign committee

  National chairman

  Federal money

  Soft money

  Political machine

  Ideological party

  Solidary

  Personal following

  Single-member districts

  Proportional representation

  Plurality system

  Caucus(congressional)

  Interests Represented by Organizations in Washington Politics

  Political efficacy

  Solidary incentives

  Material incentives

  Purposive incentive

  Publicinterest lobby

  Pluralist theory(politics)

  Cue(political)

  Campaigns and Elections

  选战和选举

  Activist

  Australian ballot

  Voting-age population(VAP)

  Voting-eligible population (VEP)

  Registered voters

  Motor-voter law

  Kinds of Elections

  General election

  Primary election

  Closed primary

  Open primary

  Blanket primary

  Runoff primary

  Presidential primary

  Spots(campaign)

  Visual(campaign)

  Retrospective voters

  Prospective voters

  Critical,or realigning,periods

  New Deal coalition

  Split-tickets

  Party-column ballot

  Office-bloc ballot

  Straight ticket voting

  Selective attention

  Political action committee (PAC)

  Independent expenditures

  Soft money

  Matching funds

  Major Federal Campaign-Finance Rules

  527s

  Congress

  国会

  Party polarization

  Congress

  Parliament

  Franking privilege

  Bicameral legislature

  The Powers of Congress

  Runoff primary

  Majority leader (floorleader)

  Minority leader

  Whip

  Speaker

  Representative

  Senator

  Judging qualifications

  Privileges

  The size of Congress

  Party vote

  Caucus(congressional)

  Standing committees

  Select committees

  Joint committees

  Conference committees

  Major committees

  Minor committees

  Exclusive committees

  Major committees

  No-major committees

  Simple resolution

  Concurrent resolution

  Joint resolution

  Discharge petition

  Restrictive rule

  Closed rule

  Openrule

  House

  Senate

  Filibuster

  Riders

  Cloture resolution

  Double tracking

  Voice vote

  Division vote

  Roll-call vote

  Veto

  The Presidency

  总统制

  Executive privilege

  Veto message

  Pocket veto

  Line-item veto

  Legislative veto

  Signing Statements

  Circular structure

  Pyramid structure

  Cluster structure

  Cabinet

  The President: qualifications and benefits

  Trial balloon

  Impeachment

  Budget resolution

  Continuing resolution

  Budget deficit

  Budget surplus

  The Bureaucracy官僚制

  Bureaucracy

  Discretionary authority

  Competitive service

  Excepted service

  Name-request job

  Iron triangle

  Issue network

  Authorization legislation

  Appropriation

  Trust funds

  Committee clearance

  Red tape

  The Judiciary司法制度

  Judicial review

  Strict constructionist approach (judicial)

  Activist approach (judicial)

  Marburyv. Madison

  Constitutional court

  District courts

  Courts of appeals

  Legislative court

  Senatorial courtesy

  The Organization of the Federal Courts

  Federal-question cases

  Diversity cases

  Writof certiorari

  In forma pauperis

  Fee shifting

  Standing

  Sovereign immunity

  Class-action suit

  TheFederal Court System

  Brief

  Amicus curiae

  Opinion of the Court

  Percuriam opinion

  Concurring opinion

  Dissenting opinion

  Stare decisis

  Precedent

  Political question

  Remedy

  Judicial activism

  Making Domestic Policy国内政策制定

  Deficit

  National debt

  Gross Domestic Product

  The Federal Reserve Board

  Fiscal policy

  Cost

  Benefit

  Legitimacy

  Majoritarian politics

  Client politics

  Interest-group politics

  Entrepreneurial politics

  Policy entrepreneur

  Foreign and Military Policy外交政策和军事政策

  Client politics

  Interest-group politics

  Entrepreneurial politics

  Majoritarian politics

  Polarization

  Containment

  The Declaration of Independence独立宣言

  The Constitution of the United States美国宪法

  TheFederalist Papers

  联邦党人文集

 

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