Everyone in a particular society recognizes social roles: father, mother, child, teacher, student, police officer, store clerk, doctor, judge, political leader, and so on. Every culture expects certain types of behavior from people who play certain social roles. Anyone occupying a given position is expected to adopt a specific attitude. A store clerk is expected to take care of customers patiently and politely, and a judge is expected to make wise and fair decisions about laws.
Informal social roles are not always easy to recognize, but can be identified with careful research. They are key indicators of a group's health and happiness. Within the family, one informal role is the family hero, the person who defines integrity and upholds family morality. Others are the family arbitrator, the person who keeps the peace, and the family historian, often a grandparent, who relays valuable cultural information that maintains both the family and the larger society. And finally, there is the family friend, the person who provides comfort and companionship to the family members with emotional needs.
1.Why does the author mention a store clerk and a judge in paragraph 1?
A. To give examples of people who hold positions of respects.
B. To explain why social roles are important to a society.
C. To illustrate the behavior required of certain social roles.
D. To compare the responsibilities of two different occupations.
2.Why does the author use the term key indicators in discussing informal social roles?
A.To identify the most important type of social roles.
B.To explain how to identify informal social roles
C.To point out that informal roles are unique to families
D.To emphasize the value of informal roles to a group
The many part of the earth’s atmosphere are linked with the various parts of the earth’s surface to produce a whole---the climate system. Different parts of the earth’s surface react to the energy of the sun in different ways. For example, ice and snow reflect much of it. Land surfaces absorb solar energy and heat up rapidly. Oceans store the energy without experiencing a significant temperature rise. Thus, the different types of surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere at different rates.
We can view climate as existing in three domains: space, time, and human perception. In the domain of space, we can study local, regional, and global climates. In time, we can look at the climate for a year, a decade, a millennium, and so forth. Finally, we depend on our perceptions of the data, so we must include our own human perception into our model. Human perception must be included if our understanding of climatic processes is to be translated into societal actions. As a society, we make informed choices about how to use the beneficial effects of climate, such as deciding when and where to plant crops. We also make choices about how to minimize the harmful effects of climate---storms, blizzards, and droughts.
1.Why does the author discuss different parts of the earth’s surface in paragraph 1?
A.To explain why humans live in some parts but not in others
B.To show that the entire earth is made of the same materials
C.To compare how various surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere
D.To describe changes in the earth’s appearance throughout the year.
2.According to the author, why must we include human perception in our study of climate?
A.We must interpret data and take actions related to climate
B.We must create an interesting model of the climate system
C.We must develop an understanding of our environment
D.We must change our traditional ways of studying climate.