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Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

After the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery form Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D., probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identify of the Roman world.

Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of

Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

Passage1

After the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been

available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery form Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

1. The word “mundane” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. material

B. ordinary

C. valued

D. useful

2. Paragraph 1 suggests that one benefit for British natives in buying such items as red-gloss pottery made in Gaul was

A. improved quality of utilitarian items

B. Understanding the symbolism of Classical mythology

C. higher social standing

D. Learning to mass-produce pottery for a profit

3. Paragraph 1 supports which of the following ideas about contacts that existed between Britain and the Roman Empire before the Roman conquest of Britain?

A. They were sufficient for native Britons to become familiar with everyday Roman objects.

B. They were not sufficient for even very basic aspects of the culture of the Roman Empire to find their way into British life.

C. They were not sufficient for British to have heard of the power of the Roman Empire.

D. They were sufficient for individual Britons to become very interested in trying to participate in the culture of the Roman Empire.

Passage 2

In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D., probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identify of the Roman world.

4. The word “lavishly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. exclusively

B. additionally

C. appropriately

D. richly

5. According to paragraph 2, the style and furnishings of the Fishbourne villa suggest that the person for whom it was built was

A. cultured according to the contemporary standards of the empire

B. caught between native and Roman traditions

C. originally a visitor from Rome

D. a member of a socially inferior family

Passage 3

Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the

conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

6. The word “sacred” in the passage is closet in meaning to

A. holy

B. ancient

C. natural

D. Secret

7. According to paragraph 3, one factor contributing to success of the earliest Roman-style construction projects in Britain was

A. the fact that long before the conquest many civilian workers from Gaul and Germany had settled in Britain

B. the rapid development of characteristically Romano-British styles

C. the availability, in northeast Gaul, of structures that could serve as standards to be copied

D. the use, by administrators, of personal connections to bring craft workers form Gaul into contact with Britons

Passage 4

This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

8. In paragraph 4, why does the author mention that “Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region”?

A. To suggest that the Roman conquest of Britain increased the standard of living for natives

B. To indicate that pre-Roman Britain was more interested in festivals and community life than conquering other regions

C. To explain why architecture during this period was not built to be particularly large

D. To illustrate how the traditional roundhouse evolved under the influence of Roman civil architecture

9. The word “modest” in the passage in closet in meaning to

A. comfortable

B. limited in number

C. poorly lit

D. not large

10. According to paragraph 4, people in pre-Roman Britain lived, for the most part, in

A. architecture that seemed imperial in size

B. small communities

C. large roundhouses

D. fortified towns

11. According to paragraph 4, why did straight lines in buildings and settlements emphasize the dominance of those who introduced them ?

A. Because straight lines were in contrast to the shapes found in pre-Roman architecture

B. Because unlike curved lines, which are shaped in all sorts of different ways, straight lines do no differ

C. Because the dominant lines in entire settlements were the same as those in individual buildings

D. Because building and settlements were easier to construct when the dominant lines were straight lines

12. According to paragraph 4, buildings from the pre-Roman period differed sharply from buildings reflection Roman civil architecture in each of the following respects EXCEPT

A. their outside and inside dimensions

B. the impact they had on people

C. the geometric shapes in which they were built

D. the positioning of buildings in clusters

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Practical and unimpressive, most were barely taller than the average adult.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals,

but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. [■] But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. [■] This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. [■] Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.[■]

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 3 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

The conquest of Britain by the Roman Empire resulted in significant cultural change.

Answer Choices

A. New objects entering Britain ranged from mass-produced articles for everyday use to works of art, and they were widely-and enthusiastically-accepted by native Britons.

B. Constructing and furnishing buildings in the Roman style required skills that native workers did not at first have, so workers were brought in from other parts of the empire.

C. Native Britons traveled to Gaul to learn Classical stone-carving and building techniques.

D. The conquest was followed by a building boom, and enough villas and temples in the Italian style were built that a visitor from Rome would have felt quite at home in post-conquest Britain.

E. An important symbol of Roman supremacy was Roman architecture, whose enormous size, emphasized by the use of straight lines, made the natives feel insignificant.

F. Characteristically Romano-British concepts took hold in architecture; roundhouses were built much larger than before, and straight lines began to be used in interior spaces.

Termite Ingenuity

Termites, social insects which live in colonies that, in some species, contain 2 million individuals or more, are often incorrectly referred to as white ants. But they are certainly not ants. Termites, unlike ants, have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult. Ants and the other social members of their order, certain bees and wasps, have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages; egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The worker and soldier castes of social ants, bees, and wasps consist of only females, all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again. The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females, and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.

Since termites are small and soft-bodied, they easily become desiccated and must live in moist places with a high relative humidity. They do best when the relative humidity in their nest is above 96 percent and the temperature is fairly high, an optimum of about 79°F for temperate zone species and about 86°F for tropical species. Subterranean termites, the destructive species that occurs commonly throughout the eastern United States, attain these conditions by nesting in moist soil that is in contact with wood, their only food. The surrounding soil keeps the nest moist and tends to keep the temperature at a more or less favorable level. When it is cold in winter, subterranean termites move to burrows below the frost line.

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity,

by carrying water up from the soil.

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. The answer lies in the construction of the nest. The interior consists of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

Passage 1

Termites, social insects which live in colonies that, in some species, contain 2 million individuals or more, are often incorrectly referred to as white ants. But they are certainly not ants. Termites, unlike ants, have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg, nymph, and adult. Ants and the other social members of their order, certain bees and wasps, have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages; egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The worker and soldier castes of social ants, bees, and wasps consist of only females, all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again. The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females, and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.

1. The author mentions “white ants” in the beginning of the passage in order to

A. correct a common misunderstanding about termites’

B. introduce the idea that termites only take the form of ants during certain life stages

C. argue that not all white ants are social insects

D. Illustrate the large variety of insect species that live in colonies

2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about termites?

A. They are a kind of ant, but they are unlike most ants in many ways.

B. They form colonies that grow at first and then gradually decline.

C. Their workers are all males, and their soldiers are all females.

D. They go through a life state called the nymph stage.

Passage 2

Since termites are small and soft-bodied, they easily become desiccated and must live in moist places with a high relative humidity. They do best when the relative humidity in their nest is above 96 percent and the temperature is fairly high, an optimum of about 79°F for temperate zone species and about 86°F for tropical species. Subterranean termites, the destructive species that occurs commonly throughout the eastern United States, attain these conditions by nesting in moist soil that is in contact with wood, their only food. The surrounding soil keeps the nest moist and tends to keep the temperature at a more or less favorable level. When it is cold in winter, subterranean termites move to burrows below the frost line.

3. According to paragraph 2, termites need to live in nests with high humidity in order to

A. keep their food moist

B. withstand cold temperatures in winter

C. protect their bodies from drying out

D. keep nest temperatures high

4. The word “attain” in the passage is closet in meaning to

A. achieve

B. observe

C. overcome

D. reflect

5. The word “ingenious” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. determined

B. clever

C. ambitious

D. successful

Passage 3

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

6. The word “ingenious” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. determined

B. clever

C. ambitious

D. successful

7. The word “Renowned” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. Skilled

B. Famous

C. Early

D. Revolutionary

8. According to paragraph 3, the nests of some tropical termite species have the ability to

A. insulate the microclimate in one part of the nest from the microclimate in another part

B. Allow moist outside air to get inside regardless of whether it is warm or cool

C. rapidly decrease the humidity inside when it gets hot outside

D. Provide the oxygen needed in the nest

Passage 3 & 4

Some tropical termites are more ingenious engineers, constructing huge above-ground nests with built-in “air conditioning” that keeps the nest moist, at a constant temperature, and well supplied with oxygen. Among the most architecturally advanced of these termites is an African species, Macroternes natalensis. Renowned Swiss entomologist Martin Luscher described the mounds of this fungus-growing species as being as much as 16 feet tall, 16 feet in diameter at their base, and with a cement-like wall of soil mixed with termite saliva that is from 16 to 23 inches thick. The thick and dense wall of the mound insulates the interior microclimate from the variations in humidity and temperature of the outside atmosphere. Several narrow and relatively thin-walled ridges on the outside of the mound extend from near its base almost to its top.

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity, by carrying water up from the soil.

9. According to paragraphs 3 and 4, all of the following are true of the nests of Macroternes natalensis EXCEPT:

A. The walls are built out of soil mixed with termite saliva.

B. The nests can be as tall as they are wide at the base.

C. The interior of the nest is kept as humid as possible.

D. The termites use hollow, thin-walled ridges to travel from one part of the nest to another.

Passage 4

According to luscher, a medium-sized nest of Macrotermes has a population of about 2 million individuals. The metabolism of so many termites and of the fungus that they grow in their gardens as food helps keep the interior of the nest warm and supplies some moisture to the air in the nest. The termites saturate the atmosphere of the nest, bringing it to about 100 percent relative humidity, by carrying water up from the soil.

10. According to paragraph 4, how does the fungus grown by Macrotermes natalensis affect the environment of the nest?

A. It carries water up from the soil into the interior.

B. It dries the air by using up moisture as it grows.

C. It heats and adds humidity to the inside of the nest.

D. It lessens the effects of the metabolism of so many termites.

Passage 5

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. The answer lies in the construction of the nest. The interior consists of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

11. According to paragraph 5, what does the thinness of the ridge walls make possible?

A. The concentration of cool air in the cellar

B. The construction of exceptionally long tunnels

C. The even distribution of oxygen from attic to cellar

D. The diffusion of gases into and out of the ridges

12. According to paragraph 5, what happens to the air in the ridge tunnels of Macrotermes natalensis nests?

A. It becomes more humid as water vapor diffuses into the tunnels.

B. It loses carbon dioxide and gains oxygen.

C. It reaches the interior of the nest through pores in the walls.

D. It moves in the same direction as the air in the center of the nest.

13. Paragraph 5 supports which of the following about the air that flows through the interior of a Macrotermes natalensis mound?

A. It has a higher concentration of oxygen in the cellar than in the attic.

B. It is the same temperature as the air on the outside of the mound.

C. It contains over 250 quarts of oxygen which circulate continuously.

D. It is most humid in the cellar and gradually loses moisture as it rises to the attic.

14. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

If not through the walls or its pores, how does oxygen enter the nest at all, since the nest has a closed surface?

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

But how is this well-insulated nest ventilated? Its many occupants require over 250 quarts of oxygen (more than 1,200 quarts of aire) per day. How can so much oxygen diffuse through the thick walls of the mound? [■] Even the pores in the wall are filled with water, which almost stops the diffusion of gases. [■] The answer lies in the construction of the nest. [■] The interior consists

of a large central core in which the fungus is grown, below it is “cellar” of empty space, above it is an “attic” of empty space, and within the ridges on the outer wall of the nest, there are many small tunnels that connect the cellar and the attic. [■] The warm air in the fungus gardens rises through the nest up to the attic. From the attic, the air passes into the tunnels in the ridges and flows back down to the cellar. Gases, mainly oxygen coming in and carbon dioxide going out, easily diffuse into or out of the ridges, since their walls are thin and their surface area is large because they protrude far our from the wall of the mound. Thus air that flows down into the cellar through the ridges is relatively rich in oxygen, and has lost much of its carbon dioxide. It supplies the nest’s inhabitants with fresh oxygen as it rises through the fungus-growing area back up to the attic.

15. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 3 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Termites are social insects that live in large, often elaborately constructed nests.

Answer Choices

A. Although termites resemble ants in terms of size, metarmorphosis, and social organization, they actually belong to a different order of insects.

B. Some termites build their nests under ground, while other construct above-ground structures with thick, insulating wall.

C. Some termite species grow a fungus in their nests so that it will purify the air by taking in carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen.

D. Termites are sensitive to dryness and to changes in temperature, so their nests are designed to minimize these factors.

E. Whether they lie above ground or below ground, termite nests must include special pores that allow air to enter the nests.

F. The nests of Macrotermes natalensis consist of a series of chambers and tunnels that allow for the circulation of air and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Coral Reefs

An important environment that is more or less totally restricted to the intertropical zone is the coral reef. Coral reefs are found where the ocean water temperature is not less than 21 °C, where there is a firm substratum, and where the seawater is not rendered too dark by excessive amounts of river-borne sediment. They will not grow in very deep water, so a platform within 30 to 40 meters of the surface is a necessary prerequisite for their development. Their physical structure is dominated by the skeletons of corals, which are carnivorous animals living off zooplankton. However, in addition to corals there are enormous quantities of algae, some calcareous, which help to build the reefs. The size of reefs is variable. Some atolls are very large—Kwajelein in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific is 120 kilometers long and as much as 24 kilometers across-but most are very much smaller, and rise only a few meters above the water. The 2,000 kilometer complex of reefs known as the Great Barrier Reef, which forms a gigantic natural breakwater off the northeast coast of Australia, is by far the greatest coral structure on Earth.

Coral reefs have fascinated scientists for almost 200 years, and some of the most pertinent observations of them were made in the 1830s by Charles Darwin on the voyage of the Beagle. He recognized that there were three major kinds: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls; and he saw that they were related to each other in a logical and gradational sequence. A fringing reef is one that lies close to the shore of some continent or island. Its surface forms an uneven and rather rough platform around the coast, about the level of low water, and its outer edge slopes downwards into the sea. Between the fringing reef and the land there is sometimes a small channel or lagoon. When the lagoon is wide and deep and the reef lies at some distance from the shore and rises from deep water it is called a barrier reef. An atoll is a reef in the form of a ring or horseshoe with a lagoon in the center.

Darwin s theory was that the succession from one coral reef type to another could be achieved by the upward growth of coral from a sinking platform, and that there would be a progression from a fringing reef, through the barrier reef stage until, with the disappearance through subsidence (sinking) of the central island, only a reef-enclosed lagoon or atoll would survive. A long time after Darwin put forward this theory, some deep boreholes were drilled in the Pacific atolls in the 1950s. The drill holes passed through more than a thousand meters of coral before reaching the rock substratum of the ocean floor, and indicated that the coral had been growing upward for tens of millions of years as Earth's crust subsided at a rate of between 15 and 51 meters per million years. Darwin s theory was therefore proved basically correct. There are some submarine islands called guyots and seamounts, in which subsidence

associated with sea-floor spreading has been too speedy for coral growth to keep up.

Like mangrove swamps, coral reefs are extremely important habitats. Their diversity of coral genera is greatest in the warm waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Indeed, they have been called the marine version of the tropical rain forest, rivaling their terrestrial counterparts in both richness of species and biological productivity. They also have significance because they provide coastal protection, opportunities for recreation, and are potential sources of substances like medicinal drugs. At present they are coming under a variety of threats, of which two of the most important are dredging and the effects of increased siltation brought about by accelerated erosion from neighboring land areas.

Passage 1

An important environment that is more or less totally restricted to the intertropical zone is the coral reef. Coral reefs are found where the ocean water temperature is not less than 21 °C, where there is a firm substratum, and where the seawater is not rendered too dark by excessive amounts of river-borne sediment. They will not grow in very deep water, so a platform within 30 to 40 meters of the surface is a necessary prerequisite for their development. Their physical structure is dominated by the skeletons of corals, which are carnivorous animals living off zooplankton. However, in addition to corals there are enormous quantities of algae, some calcareous, which help to build the reefs. The size of reefs is variable. Some atolls are very large—Kwajelein in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific is 120 kilometers long and as much as 24 kilometers across-but most are very much smaller, and rise only a few meters above the water. The 2,000 kilometer complex of reefs known as the Great Barrier Reef, which forms a gigantic natural breakwater off the northeast coast of Australia, is by far the greatest coral structure on Earth.

1. According to paragraph 1, all of the following are needed for the growth of coral reefs?

A. a solid base to grow on

B. exposure to light

C. the presence of river-borne sediment

D. ocean temperatures of 21 °C or higher

2. the word “prerequisite” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. precaution

B. preparation

C. requirement

D. achievement

3. According to paragraph 1, algae are important because

A. they help build coral reefs

B. they are the dominant type of sea life living on the reefs

C. they compete with coral for zooplankton

D. they are an important source of food available to corals

4. The word “complex” in the passage is closest in meaning to?

A. extension

B. system

C. region

D. variety

Passage 2

Coral reefs have fascinated scientists for almost 200 years, and some of the most pertinent observations of them were made in the 1830s by Charles Darwin on the voyage of the Beagle. He recognized that there were three major kinds: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls; and he saw that they were related to each other in a logical and gradational sequence. A fringing reef is one that lies close to the shore of some continent or island. Its surface forms an uneven and rather rough platform around the coast, about the level of low water, and its outer edge slopes downwards into the sea. Between the fringing reef and the land there is sometimes a small channel or lagoon. When the lagoon is wide and deep and the reef lies at some distance from the shore and rises from deep water it is called a barrier reef. An atoll is a reef in the form of a ring or horseshoe with a lagoon in the center.

5. According to paragraph 2, how did Charles Darwin contribute to the understanding of coral reefs?

A. He identified the main types of coral reef and explained how they were related.

B. He discovered the existence of coral reefs on a scientific voyage.

C. He proved that reefs are mostly located very close to the shore.

D. He saw the importance of reefs for the support of other marine life.

6. The word “pertinent” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. extraordinary

B. relevant

C. intelligent

D. famous

7. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT characteristics of a barrier reef?

A. It is located away from the shore of the neighboring land.

B. It is separated from neighboring land by a wide channel.

C. It is located in deep ocean water.

D. It surrounds a small, central lagoon.

Passage 3

Darwin s theory was that the succession from one coral reef type to another could be achieved by the upward growth of coral from a sinking platform, and that there would be a progression from a fringing reef, through the barrier reef stage until, with the disappearance through subsidence (sinking) of the central island, only a reef-enclosed lagoon or atoll would survive. A long time after Darwin put forward this theory, some deep boreholes were drilled in the Pacific atolls in the 1950s. The drill holes passed through more than a thousand meters of coral before reaching the rock substratum of the ocean floor, and indicated that the coral had been growing upward for tens of millions of years as Earth's crust subsided at a rate of between 15 and 51 meters per million years. Darwin s theory was therefore proved basically correct. There are some submarine islands called guyots and seamounts, in which subsidence associated with sea-floor spreading has been too speedy for coral growth to keep up.

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Darwin claimed that, of the three types of coral reefs, only an atoll would be able to survive on a sinking platform.

B. Darwin recognized that coral reefs achieved success by growing upward from a sinking land platform and becoming an atoll.

C. Darwin argued that as a coral reef grew up from a sinking island, it would become a fringing reef, then a barrier reef, and finally, with the disappearance of the island, an atoll.

D. Darwin’s theory helped explain the disappearance of a number of islands by showing how coral reef growth caused them to sink below the ocean surface.

9. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the Pacific atolls?

A. They were once fringing reefs around the coasts of islands.

B. They were first observed by Darwin during his voyage on the Beagle.

C. They will eventually become fringing reefs.

D. They are located where the ocean floor does not sink.

10. Why does the passage provide the information that the drill holes in the Pacific atolls passed through more than a thousand meters of coral before reaching the rock substratum of the ocean floor?

A. To emphasize that according to Darwin’s view coral can grow at great depths

B. To indicate how scientists knew the rate at which Earth’s crust had subsided

C. To support the claim that coral reefs take millions of years to form

D. To present the evidence that confirmed Darwin’s account of coral reef evolution

Passage 4

Like mangrove swamps, coral reefs are extremely important habitats. Their diversity of coral genera is greatest in the warm waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Indeed, they have been called the marine version of the tropical rain forest, rivaling their terrestrial counterparts in both richness of species and biological productivity. They also have significance because they provide coastal protection, opportunities for recreation, and are potential sources of substances like medicinal drugs. At present they are coming under a variety of threats, of which two of the most important are dredging and the effects of increased siltation brought about by accelerated erosion from neighboring land areas.

11. According to paragraph 4, why have coral reefs been compared to tropical rain forests?

A. Both are located near the Indian and western Pacific Oceans.

B. Both are home to a wide variety of species.

C. Both play an important role in protecting coastal islands.

D. Both are threatened by the erosion of nearby land.

12. The word “potential” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A. powerful

B. possible

C. valuable

D. reliable

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Yet because many coral reef organisms can tolerate only a narrow range of environmental conditions, reefs are sensitive to damage from environmental changes.

Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

Like mangrove swamps, coral reefs are extremely important habitats. Their diversity of coral genera is greatest in the warm waters of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. ■ Indeed, they have been called the marine version of the tropical rain forest, rivaling their terrestrial counterparts in both richness of species and biological productivity. ■They also have significance because they provide coastal protection, opportunities for recreation, and are potential sources of substances like medicinal drugs. ■At present they are coming under a variety of threats, of which two of the most important are dredging and the effects of increased siltation brought about by accelerated erosion from neighboring land areas. ■

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some

sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

Coral reefs constitute an important tropical environment that provides habitat for a rich variety of ocean life.

Answer Choices

A. Coral reefs are structures made by living creatures and can grow only in specific ocean conditions.

B. Although atolls can sometimes grow to large proportions, barrier reefs are by far the largest coral structures.

C. Mangrove swamps are as important as coral reefs as the habitat for numerous plant and animal species.

D. Coral reefs are classified as fringing, barrier, or atoll, all of which are linked in a chain of progressive development.

E. Although coral reefs are important to humans in several ways, they are currently threatened by dredging and mud from erosion.

F. Fringing reefs lie close to the shore of continents and islands, forming a transition zone between the land mass and the sea.

 

托福TPO47阅读答案

阅读一:1-5.BCBDA 6-10.ADCDB 11-13.ADA 14.ABE

阅读二:1-5.ADCAB 6-10.BDDCD 11-13.BAB 14.BDF

阅读三:1-5.CCABA 6-10.BDCAD 11-13.BBC 14.ADE

 

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