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TPO阅读37原文+题目

2016年04月13日 03:41来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

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TPO阅读37原文+题目

The Emergence of Civilization

Starting around 8000 B.C.E., the most extensive exploitation of agriculture occurred in river valleys, where there were both good soil and a dependable water supply regardless of the amount of rainfall. In the Near East, this happened in the Fertile Crescent, the region extending up the Nile Valley in Egypt, north through the Levant (Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria), and southeast into the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys of Mesopotamia. The richest soil was located in the deltas at the mouths of the rivers, but the deltas were swampy and subject to flooding. Before they could be farmed, they needed to be drained and irrigated, and flood-control systems had to be constructed. These activities required administrative organization and the ability to mobilize large pools of labor. In Mesopotamia, perhaps as a consequence of a period of drought, massive land-use projects were undertaken after 4000 B.C.E. to cultivate the rich delta soils of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The land was so productive that many more people could be fed, and a great population explosion resulted. Villages grew into cities of tens of thousands of persons.

 

These large cities needed some form of centralized administration. Archaeological evidence indicates that the organization initially was provided by religion, for the largest building in each city was a massive temple honoring one of the Mesopotamian gods. In Uruk, for example, a 60-foot- long temple known as the White House was built before 3000 B.C.E. There were no other large public buildings, suggesting that the priests who were in charge of the temples also were responsible for governing the city and organizing people to work in the fields and on irrigation projects building and maintaining systems of ditches and dams.

 

The great concentration of wealth and resources in the river valleys brought with it further technological advances, such as wheeled vehicles, multicolored pottery and the pottery wheel, and the weaving of wool garments. Advances in metal technology just before 2000 B.C.E. resulted in the creation of bronze, a durable alloy (or mixture) of about 90 percent copper and 10 percent tin that provided a sharp cutting edge for weapons.

 

By 3000 B.C.E., the economies and administrations of Mesopotamia and Egypt had become so complex that some form of record keeping was needed. As a result, writing was invented. Once a society became literate, it passed from the period known as prehistory into the historic period. In fact, the word history comes from a Greek word meaning narrative people could not provide a detailed permanent account of their past until they were able to write.

 

The totality of these developments resulted in the appearance, around 300 B.C.E., of a new form of culture called civilization. The first civilizations had several defining characteristics. They had economies based on agriculture. They had cities that functioned as administrative centers and usually had large populations. They had different social classes, such as free persons and slaves. They had specialization of labor, that is, different people serving, for example, as rulers, priests, craft workers, merchants, soldiers, and farmers. And they had metal technology and a system of writing. As of 3000 B.C.E., civilization in these terms existed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China.

 

This first phase of civilization is called the Bronze Age because of the importance of metal technology. The most characteristic Near Eastern Bronze Age civilizations, those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, were located in river valleys, were based on the extensive exploitation of agriculture, and supported large populations. Bronze was a valuable commodity in these civilizations; the copper and tin needed for its manufacture did not exist in river valleys and had to be imported. Bronze was therefore used mainly for luxury items, such as jewelry or weapons, not for everyday domestic items, which were made from pottery, animal products, wood, and stone. In particular, bronze was not used for farming tools. Thus, early civilizations based on large-scale agriculture, such as those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, were feasible only in soils that could be worked by wooden plows pulled by people or draft animals such as oxen. Other Bronze Age civilizations, however, such as those that arose in the Levant and eastern Mediterranean, took advantage of their location on communication routes to pursue economies based on trade.

 

Paragraph1: Starting around 8000 B.C.E., the most extensive exploitation of agriculture occurred in river valleys, where there were both good soil and a dependable water supply regardless of the amount of rainfall. In the Near East, this happened in the Fertile Crescent, the region extending up the Nile Valley in Egypt, north through the Levant (Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria), and southeast into the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys of Mesopotamia. The richest soil was located in the deltas at the mouths of the rivers, but the deltas were swampy and subject to flooding. Before they could be farmed, they needed to be drained and irrigated, and flood-control systems had to be constructed. These activities required administrative organization and the ability to mobilize large pools of labor. In Mesopotamia, perhaps as a consequence of a period of drought, massive land-use projects were undertaken after 4000 B.C.E. to cultivate the rich delta soils of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The land was so productive that many more people could be fed, and a great population explosion resulted. Villages grew into cities of tens of thousands of persons.

1. Which of the following helps explain why the most extensive exploitation of agriculture occurred in river valleys?

o In river valleys farmers did not have to depend on rain for water.

o The soil in river valleys did not require irrigation.

o Swampy areas in river valleys were easy to drain.

o The expanding populations in river valleys provided large pools of labor.

2. Why does the author mention a period of drought?

o To help explain why the richest soils in the Near East were located in the deltas at the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

o To suggest a reason for undertaking the massive effort to make the deltas of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers farmable

o To identify a condition that often affected agricultural production in Mesopotamia

o To support the idea that mobilizing large pools of labor after 4000 B.C.E. required significant administrative organization

3. According to paragraph 1, what was one result of the farming systems developed in river deltas in the Near East?

o There was a large increase in the overall amount of food produced

o Large pools of labor became available to perform administrative tasks.

o The soil in these deltas grew much richer.

o The number of farming villages surrounding cities increased.

Paragraph 2: These large cities needed some form of centralized administration. Archaeological evidence indicates that the organization initially was provided by religion, for the largest building in each city was a massive temple honoring one of the Mesopotamian gods. In Uruk, for example, a 60-foot- long temple known as the White House was built before 3000 B.C.E. There were no other large public buildings, suggesting that the priests who were in charge of the temples also were responsible for governing the city and organizing people to work in the fields and on irrigation projects building and maintaining systems of ditches and dams.

4. According to paragraph 2, the fact that temples appear to have been the only large public buildings in Mesopotamian cities has been interpreted as evidence that these cities

o needed some form of central administration

o were initially administered by priests

o were all governed from Uruk

o had difficulty organizing workers for building projects

Paragraph 3: The great concentration of wealth and resources in the river valleys brought with it further technological advances, such as wheeled vehicles, multicolored pottery and the pottery wheel, and the weaving of wool garments. Advances in metal technology just before 2000 B.C.E. resulted in the creation of bronze, a durable alloy (or mixture) of about 90 percent copper and 10 percent tin that provided a sharp cutting edge for weapons.

5. The word “durable” in the passage is closest in meaning to

o existing for a long time without significant damage

o difficult to produce

o recently discovered

o extremely useful

6. Paragraph 3 indicates that technological advances affected all of the following EXCEPT

o transportation

o clothing manufacture

o warfare and hunting

o the distribution of wealth and resources

Paragraph 4: By 3000 B.C.E., the economies and administrations of Mesopotamia and Egypt had become so complex that some form of record keeping was needed. As a result, writing was invented. Once a society became literate, it passed from the period known as prehistory into the historic period. In fact, the word history comes from a Greek word meaning narrative people could not provide a detailed permanent account of their past until they were able to write.

7. According to paragraph 4, why was writing invented

o To reduce unnecessary social complexity

o To keep economic and administrative records

o To record oral historical narratives

o To help people better understand their own past

Paragraph 5: The totality of these developments resulted in the appearance, around 300 B.C.E., of a new form of culture called civilization. The first civilizations had several defining characteristics. They had economies based on agriculture. They had cities that functioned as administrative centers and usually had large populations. They had different social classes, such as free persons and slaves. They had specialization of labor, that is, different people serving, for example, as rulers, priests, craft workers, merchants, soldiers, and farmers. And they had metal technology and a system of writing. As of 3000 B.C.E., civilization in these terms existed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China.

8. The word defining in the passage is closest in meaning to

o important

o obvious

o identifying

o interesting

9. According to paragraph 5, all of the following are true of the first civilizations EXCEPT:

o Their soldiers and priests also worked as farmers.

o Their populations were divided into different social classes.

o They had developed technologies for working with metals.

o They were typically administered from large cities.

Paragraph 6: This first phase of civilization is called the Bronze Age because of the importance of metal technology. The most characteristic Near Eastern Bronze Age civilizations, those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, were located in river valleys, were based on the extensive exploitation of agriculture, and supported large populations. ■Bronze was a valuable commodity in these civilizations; the copper and tin needed for its manufacture did not exist in river valleys and had to be imported. Bronze was therefore used mainly for luxury items, such as jewelry or weapons, not for everyday domestic items, which were made from pottery, animal products, wood, and stone. ■In particular, bronze was not used for farming tools. ■Thus, early civilizations based on large-scale agriculture, such as those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, were feasible only in soils that could be worked by wooden plows pulled by people or draft animals such as oxen. ■Other Bronze Age civilizations, however, such as those that arose in the Levant and eastern Mediterranean, took advantage of their location on communication routes to pursue economies based on trade.

10. The word domestic in the passage is closet in meaning to

o Practical

o Household

o Standard

o Necessary

11. According to paragraph 6, why was bronze not used for farming tools in Bronze age civilizations of the Near East

o Wooden farming tools were more effective in the soils of the region.

o Bronze farming tools would have deteriorated quickly in the climate.

o Bronze was too expensive to use for farming tools.

o People had not yet discovered how to make farming tools out of bronze.

12. According to paragraph 6, which of the following was true of at least some civilizations of the Bronze Age?

o They did not develop urban centers with large populations.

o They did not use metals to make bronze.

o They had an economy that was not based on agriculture.

o They did not use bronze for luxury items such as jewelry.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

This significantly limited the availability of bronze.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.

Answer Choices

o Before the rise of large cities with complex economies, there had been no need for any kind of administrative structure to organize workers, and thus religion tended to be the only source of authority.

o Large cities functioned as administrative centers, creating a concentration of wealth and resources that stimulated technological advances, such as the invention of writing and the creation of bronze.

o By 3000 B.C.E., a number of agricultural societies had emerged as civilizations characterized by large cities, centralized administrations, specialization of labor, class divisions, metal technology, and writing.

o For a culture to be considered a civilization, it must have independently invented its own form of writing and become generally literate, thereby moving from prehistory into the historic period.

o Although river-valley societies had to import the metals for making bronze, the first phase of civilization is known as the Bronze Age because of the importance of metal technology in these societies.

o The creation of bronze made it possible for civilizations based on large-scale agriculture to be located far away from the river valleys and deltas in areas where the soil was less rich and less easy to work.

 

TPO37-2

Stream Deposits

A large, swift stream or river can carry all sizes of particles, from clay to boulders. When the current slows down, its competence (how much it can carry) decreases and the stream deposits the largest particles in the streambed. If current velocity continues to decrease as a flood wanes, for example finer particles settle out on top of the large ones. Thus, a stream sorts its sediment according to size. A waning flood might deposit a layer of gravel, overlain by sand and finally topped by silt and clay. Streams also sort sediment in the downstream direction. Many mountain streams are choked with boulders and cobbles, but far downstream, their deltas are composed mainly of fine silt and clay. This downstream sorting is curious because stream velocity generally increases in the downstream direction. Competence increases with velocity, so a river should be able to transport larger particles than its tributaries carry. One explanation for downstream sorting is that abrasion wears away the boulders and cobbles to sand and silt as the sediment moves downstream over the years. Thus, only the fine sediment reaches the lower parts of most rivers.

A stream deposits its sediment in three environments: Alluvial fans and deltas form where stream gradient (angle of incline) suddenly decreases as a stream enters a flat plain, a lake, or the sea; floodplain deposits accumulate on a floodplain adjacent to the stream channel; and channel deposits form in the stream channel itself. Bars, which are elongated mounds of sediment, are transient features that form in the stream channel and on the banks. They commonly form in one year and erode the next. Rivers used for commercial navigation must be recharted frequently because bars shift from year to year. Imagine a winding stream. The water on the outside of the curve moves faster than the water on the inside. The stream erodes its outside bank because the current's inertia drives it into the outside bank. At the same time, the slower water on the inside point of the bend deposits sediment, forming a point bar. A mid-channel bar is a sandy and gravelly deposit that forms in the middle of a stream channel. Most streams flow in a single channel.

In contrast, a braided stream flows in many shallow, interconnecting channels. A braided stream forms where more sediment is supplied to a stream than it can carry. The stream dumps the excess sediment, forming mid-channel bars. The bars gradually fill a channel, forcing the stream to overflow its banks and erode new channels. As a result, a braided stream flows simultaneously in several channels and shifts back and forth across its floodplain. Braided streams are common in both deserts and glacial environments because both produce abundant sediment. A desert yields large amounts of sediment because it has little or no vegetation to prevent erosion. Glaciers grind bedrock into fine sediment, which is carried by streams flowing from the melting ice. If a steep mountain stream flows onto a flat plain, its gradient and velocity decrease sharply. As a result, it deposits most of its sediment in a fan-shaped mound called an alluvial fan. Alluvial fans are common in many arid and semiarid mountainous regions.

A stream also slows abruptly where it enters the still water of a lake or ocean. The sediment settles out to form a nearly flat landform called a delta. Part of the delta lies above water level, and the remainder lies slightly below water level. Deltas are commonly fan-shaped, resembling the Greek letter delta (!〇). Both deltas and alluvial fans change rapidly. Sediment fills channels (waterways), which are then abandoned while new channels develop as in a braided stream. As a result, a stream feeding a delta or fan splits into many channels called distributaries. A large delta may spread out in this manner until it covers thousands of square kilometers. Most fans, however, are much smaller, covering a fraction of a square kilometer to a few square kilometers. The Mississippi River has flowed through different delta channels during the past 5,000 to 6,000 years. But in recent years, engineers have built great systems of levees (retaining walls) in attempts to stabilize the channels.

Paragraph 1: A large, swift stream or river can carry all sizes of particles, from clay to boulders. When the current slows down, its competence (how much it can carry) decreases and the stream deposits the largest particles in the streambed. If current velocity continues to decrease as a flood wanes, for example finer particles settle out on top of the large ones. Thus, a stream sorts its sediment according to size. A waning flood might deposit a layer of gravel, overlain by sand and finally topped by silt and clay. Streams also sort sediment in the downstream direction. Many mountain streams are choked with boulders and cobbles, but far downstream, their deltas are composed mainly of fine silt and clay. This downstream sorting is curious because stream velocity generally increases in the downstream direction. Competence increases with velocity, so a river should be able to transport larger particles than its tributaries carry. One explanation for downstream sorting is that abrasion wears away the boulders and cobbles to sand and silt as the sediment moves downstream over the years. Thus, only the fine sediment reaches the lower parts of most rivers.

1. The word “curious “in the passage is closest in meaning to

o Strange

o Rapid

o Seasonal

o Essential

2. According to paragraph 1, the competence of a stream increase as

o downstream sorting decreases

o flooding wanes

o the speed of the current increases

o the size of particles increases

3. According to paragraph 1, all of the following are true of stream sorting EXCEPT:

o Most of the particles in mountain streams pile up behind boulders and cobbles.

o When particles of different sizes settle in a place, the smaller ones sit atop the larger ones.

o There are generally more large particles upstream than downstream in a river.

o In some situations, downstream particles are created from rocks that eroded as they traveled downstream.

Paragraph 2: A stream deposits its sediment in three environments: Alluvial fans and deltas form where stream gradient (angle of incline) suddenly decreases as a stream enters a flat plain, a lake, or the sea; floodplain deposits accumulate on a floodplain adjacent to the stream channel; and channel deposits form in the stream channel itself. Bars, which are elongated mounds of sediment, are transient features that form in the stream channel and on the banks. They commonly form in one year and erode the next. Rivers used for commercial navigation must be recharted frequently because bars shift from year to year. Imagine a winding stream. The water on the outside of the curve moves faster than the water on the inside. The stream erodes its outside bank because the current's inertia drives it into the outside bank. At the same time, the slower water on the inside point of the bend deposits sediment, forming a point bar. A mid-channel bar is a sandy and gravelly deposit that forms in the middle of a stream channel. Most streams flow in a single channel.

4. The word “accumulate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

o Begin

o Appear

o Build up

o Spread

5. According to paragraph2, which of the following is true about bars in streams?

o They start forming in the stream channel and then expand over the banks.

o They seldom form in rivers that are used for commercial navigation.

o They tend to grow longer each year.

o They often last no more than a year.

6. Why does the author ask the reader to imagine a winding stream?

o To explain how the presence of bars changes the speed and direction of water flow in a stream

o To explain why bars are more common than alluvial fans or other types of sediment deposits

o To illustrate the particular difficulties that commercial navigation faces on many rivers

o To help explain how point bars are formed

Paragraph 3: In contrast, a braided stream flows in many shallow, interconnecting channels. A braided stream forms where more sediment is supplied to a stream than it can carry. The stream dumps the excess sediment, forming mid-channel bars. The bars gradually fill a channel, forcing the stream to overflow its banks and erode new channels. As a result, a braided stream flows simultaneously in several channels and shifts back and forth across its floodplain. Braided streams are common in both deserts and glacial environments because both produce abundant sediment. A desert yields large amounts of sediment because it has little or no vegetation to prevent erosion. Glaciers grind bedrock into fine sediment, which is carried by streams flowing from the melting ice. If a steep mountain stream flows onto a flat plain, its gradient and velocity decrease sharply. As a result, it deposits most of its sediment in a fan-shaped mound called an alluvial fan. Alluvial fans are common in many arid and semiarid mountainous regions.

7. According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of braided streams EXCEPT:

o They shift back and forth on the floodplain as some of their channels fill with sediment and new ones are formed.

o They carry sediments that tend to be very similar in size.

o They sometimes have mid-channel bars.

o Some of their channels are created as a result of the overflow of other channels.

8. Why does the author include the information that Glaciers grind bedrock into fine sediment, which is carried by streams flowing from the melting ice?

o To give a reason why heavily sedimented braided streams are common in glacial environments

o To explain why some mountain streams deposit most of their sediment in a fan-shaped mound

o To identify the most common source of sediment in arid and semiarid mountainous regions

o To help explain why glacial sediment decreases the gradient and velocity of steep mountain streams

9. The word “simultaneously” in the passage is closest in meaning to

o In many directions

o On the surface

o At the same time

o In a straight line

Paragraph 4: A stream also slows abruptly where it enters the still water of a lake or ocean. The sediment settles out to form a nearly flat landform called a delta. Part of the delta lies above water level, and the remainder lies slightly below water level. Deltas are commonly fan-shaped, resembling the Greek letter delta (!〇). Both deltas and alluvial fans change rapidly. Sediment fills channels (waterways), which are then abandoned while new channels develop as in a braided stream. As a result, a stream feeding a delta or fan splits into many channels called distributaries. A large delta may spread out in this manner until it covers thousands of square kilometers. ■Most fans, however, are much smaller, covering a fraction of a square kilometer to a few square kilometers. ■The Mississippi River has flowed through different delta channels during the past 5,000 to 6,000 years. ■But in recent years, engineers have built great systems of levees (retaining walls) in attempts to stabilize the channels. ■

10. The word “abruptly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

o Noticeably

o Gradually

o Suddenly

o Slightly

11. According to paragraph 4, what is true about river deltas?

o They alternate between periods of spreading out and periods of getting smaller.

o They have both active channels and channels that have been blocked by sediment.

o They are typically formed by rivers that are braided before they reach the delta area.

o They are much larger when formed in a still lake than when formed in the ocean.

12. According to paragraph 4, what are engineers trying to accomplish in the Mississippi delta

o To expand the channels into which the river flows

o To keep the river flowing in the existing channels

o To control the amount of sediment the river brings to the delta

o To increase the part of the delta that lies above water level

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

If the Mississippi River were not contained by such systems, it would probably abandon its present path and cut into the channel of a nearby river to the west.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong.

Answer Choices

o Particles tend to be largest upstream and smallest downstream, probably because water flowing downstream erodes fine sediment from the larger particles.

o A wide variety of deposits, including bars, alluvial fan s, and deltas, are formed as a result of an increase in the speed of the downstream current.

o Bars commonly shift from being point bars on a river bank to being mid-channel bars.

o Deposits of sediment are found where flow velocity decreases, and when there is excessive sediment a stream may become braided, dividing into several channels.

o Rivers that flow through arid and semiarid mountainous regions tend to form alluvial fans at bends in the river.

o Deltas, which are formed where streams enter lakes or the ocean, are naturally unstable landforms that can extend over a large area

 

TPO37-3

Characteristic of roman pottery

The pottery of ancient Romans is remarkable in several ways. The high quality of Roman pottery is very easy to appreciate when handling actual pieces of tableware or indeed kitchenware and amphorae (the large jars used throughout the Mediterranean for the transport and storage of liquids, such as wine and oil). However, it is impossible to do justice to Roman wares on the page, even when words can be backed up by photographs and drawing. Most Roman pottery is light and smooth to touch and very tough, although, like all pottery, it shatters if dropped on a hard surface, it is generally made with carefully selected and purified clay, worked to thin-walled and standardized shapes on a fast wheel and fired in a kiln (pottery oven) capable of ensuring a consistent finish. With handmade pottery, inevitably there are slight differences between individual vessels of the same design and occasional minor blemishes (flaws). But what strikes the eye and the touch most immediately and most powerfully with Roman pottery is its consistent high quality.

This is not just an aesthetic consideration but also a practical one. These vessels are solid (brittle, but not fragile), they are pleasant and easy to handle (being light and smooth), and, with their hard and sometimes glossy (smooth and shiny) surfaces, they hold liquids well and are easy to wash. Furthermore, their regular and standardized shapes would have made them simple to stack and store. When people today are shown a very ordinary Roman pot and, in particular, are allowed to handle it, they often comment on how modern it looks and feels, and they need to be convinced of its true age.

As impressive as the quality of Roman pottery is its sheer massive quantity. When considering quantities, we would ideally like to have some estimates for overall production from particular sites of pottery manufacture and for overall consumption at specific settlements. Unfortunately, it is in the nature of the archaeological evidence, which is almost invariable only a sample of what once existed, that such figures will always be elusive. However, no one who has ever worked in the field would question the abundance of Roman pottery, particularly in the Mediterranean region. This abundance is notable in Roman settlements (especially urban sites) where the labor that archaeologists have to put into the washing and sorting of potsherds (fragments of pottery) constitutes a high proportion of the total work during the initial phases of excavation.

Only rarely can we derive any “real” quantities from deposits of broken pots. However, there is one exceptional dump, which does represent a very large part of the site's total history of consumption and for which an estimate of quantity has been produced. On the left bank of the Tiber River in Rome, by one of the river ports of the ancient city, is a substantial hill some 50 meters high called Monte Testaccio. It is made up entirely of broken oil amphorae, mainly of the second and third centuries A.D. it has been estimated that Monte Testaccio contains the remains of some 53 million amphorae, in which around 6,000million liters of oil were imported into the city from overseas, imports into imperial Rome were supported by the full might of the state and were therefore quite exceptional••••but the size of the operations at Monte Testaccio, and the productivity and complexity that lay behind them, nonetheless cannot fail to impress. This was a society with similarities to modern one----moving goods on a gigantic scale, manufacturing high-quality containers to do so, and occasionally, as here, even discarding them on delivery.

Roman pottery was transported not only in large quantities but also over substantial distances. Many Roman pots, in particular amphorae and the fine wares designed for use at tables, could travel hundreds of miles----all over the Mediterranean and also further afield. But maps that show the various spots where Roman pottery of a particular type has been found tell only part of the story. What is more significant than any geographical spread is the access that different levels of society had to good- quality products. In all but the remotest regions of the empire, Roman pottery of a high standard is common at the sites of humble villages and isolated farmsteads.

 

Paragraph 1: The pottery of ancient Romans is remarkable in several ways. The high quality of Roman pottery is very easy to appreciate when handling actual pieces of tableware or indeed kitchenware and amphorae (the large jars used throughout the Mediterranean for the transport and storage of liquids, such as wine and oil). However, it is impossible to do justice to Roman wares on the page, even when words can be backed up by photographs and drawing. Most Roman pottery is light and smooth to touch and very tough, although, like all pottery, it shatters if dropped on a hard surface, it is generally made with carefully selected and purified clay, worked to thin-walled and standardized shapes on a fast wheel and fired in a kiln (pottery oven) capable of ensuring a consistent finish. With handmade pottery, inevitably there are slight differences between individual vessels of the same design and occasional minor blemishes (flaws). But what strikes the eye and the touch most immediately and most powerfully with Roman pottery is its consistent high quality.

1. Paragraph 1 indicates which of the following about Roman pottery?

o Roman amphorae were of much higher quality overall than other Roman pottery.

o Roman pottery can best be appreciated when actual pieces are handled.

o Roman pottery declined slightly in quality when the use of fast wheels and kilns was introduced.

o Roman practical tableware spread more rapidly across the Mediterranean than amphorae did.

2. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 1 as characteristics of Roman pottery EXCEPT:

o It was usually made with high-quality clay.

o It generally did not weigh much.

o It did not break as easily as other ancient pottery.

o It sometimes had imperfections.

Paragraph 2: This is not just an aesthetic consideration but also a practical one. These vessels are solid (brittle, but not fragile), they are pleasant and easy to handle (being light and smooth), and, with their hard and sometimes glossy (smooth and shiny) surfaces, they hold liquids well and are easy to wash. Furthermore, their regular and standardized shapes would have made them simple to stack and store. When people today are shown a very ordinary Roman pot and, in particular, are allowed to handle it, they often comment on how modern it looks and feels, and they need to be convinced of its true age. 3. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT true of Roman vessels?

o They were good containers for liquids.

o Their shapes allowed for easy stacking and storing.

o They sometimes had shiny surfaces.

o Their true age is immediately apparent.

Paragraph 3: As impressive as the quality of Roman pottery is its sheer massive quantity. When considering quantities, we would ideally like to have some estimates for overall production from particular sites of pottery manufacture and for overall consumption at specific settlements. Unfortunately, it is in the nature of the archaeological evidence, which is almost invariable only a sample of what once existed, that such figures will always be elusive. However, no one who has ever worked in the field would question the abundance of Roman pottery, particularly in the Mediterranean region. This abundance is notable in Roman settlements (especially urban sites) where the labor that archaeologists have to put into the washing and sorting of potsherds (fragments of pottery) constitutes a high proportion of the total work during the initial phases of excavation.

4. The author mentions the work of archaeologists in paragraph 3 in order to

o support the idea that pottery was produced in large quantities by the Romans

o illustrate how hard it is for archaeologists to find complete pieces of Roman pottery

o contrast archaeological sites in Roman urban areas with other sites in the Mediterranean

o explain why the quantities of pottery found vary significantly from one site to another

Paragraph 4: Only rarely can we derive any “real” quantities from deposits of broken pots. However, there is one exceptional dump, which does represent a very large part of the site's total history of consumption and for which an estimate of quantity has been produced. On the left bank of the Tiber River in Rome, by one of the river ports of the ancient city, is a substantial hill some 50 meters high called Monte Testaccio. It is made up entirely of broken oil amphorae, mainly of the second and third centuries A.D. it has been estimated that Monte Testaccio contains the remains of some 53 million amphorae, in which around 6,000million liters of oil were imported into the city from overseas, imports into imperial Rome were supported by the full might of the state and were therefore quite exceptional••••but the size of the operations at Monte Testaccio, and the productivity and complexity that lay behind them, nonetheless cannot fail to impress. This was a society with similarities to modern one----moving goods on a gigantic scale, manufacturing high-quality containers to do so, and occasionally, as here, even discarding them on delivery.

5. The word “substantial” in the passage is closet in meaning to

o protected

o man-made

o large

o famous

6. According to paragraph 4, Monte Testaccio is particularly important for archaeologists because archaeologists were able to

o Conclude how amphorae manufacturing increased rapidly after the second century A.D.

o Find the locations where most of the amphorae in the Roman Empire were produced.

o Obtain relatively accurate calculations of the quantities of amphorae used over time in that place.

o Discover that the Roman state had supported amphorae production.

7. The word “entirely” in the passage is closet in meaning to

o apparently

o completely

o basically

o mostly

8. Paragraph 4 indicates which of the following about the port on the Tiber River near Monte Testaccio?

o It was built around the third century A.D.

o It was close to areas where large quantities of oil were produced.

o It was in use only for a very short period of time.

o It had impressive level of commercial activity.

9. The statement in paragraph 4 that amphorae delivered to the port near Monte Testaccio were occasionally discarded support which of the following?

o Traders at the port were often careless.

o The quality of the amphorae used at the port was not very good.

o The scale of the trade made it possible to waste quality amphorae sometimes.

o The importing of oil from overseas gradually declined, reducing the need for pottery containers.

Paragraph 5: Roman pottery was transported not only in large quantities but also over substantial distances. Many Roman pots, in particular amphorae and the fine wares designed for use at tables, could travel hundreds of miles----all over the Mediterranean and also further afield. But maps that show the various spots where Roman pottery of a particular type has been found tell only part of the story. What is more significant than any geographical spread is the access that different levels of society had to good- quality products. In all but the remotest regions of the empire, Roman pottery of a high standard is common at the sites of humble villages and isolated farmsteads.

10. The statement that “maps show the various spots where Roman pottery of a particular type has been found tell only part of the story” makes the point that

o Maps indicate where specific pottery styles have been found, but they do not indicate where these styles originated.

o Maps show the geographical spread of Roman pottery but not the people who had access to it.

o Maps do not usually include pottery styles found in the remotest regions the Roman Empire.

o Archaeologist studying Roman pottery need to use a range of techniques in their investigations.

11. The word “humble” in the passage is closet in meaning to

o rural

o distant

o ancient

o modest

12. The word “particular” in the passage is closet in meaning to

o specific

o common

o ancient

o superior

Paragraph 4: ■Only rarely can we derive any “real” quantities from deposits of broken pots. ■However, there is one exceptional dump, which does represent a very large part of the site's total history of consumption and for which an estimate of quantity has been produced. ■On the left bank of the Tiber River in Rome, by one of the river ports of the ancient city, is a substantial hill some 50 meters high called Monte Testaccio. ■It is made up entirely of broken oil amphorae, mainly of the second and third centuries A.D. it has been estimated that Monte Testaccio contains the remains of some 53 million amphorae, in which around 6,000million liters of oil were imported into the city from overseas, imports into imperial Rome were supported by the full might of the state and were therefore quite exceptional----but the size of the operations at Monte Testaccio, and the productivity and complexity that lay behind them, nonetheless cannot fail to impress. This was a society with similarities to modern one----moving goods on a gigantic scale, manufacturing high-quality containers to do so, and occasionally, as here, even discarding them on delivery.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

That is because residents of a city did not usually discard used pottery at the same site over a long period of time.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Drag your choices to the spaces where they belong.

Answer Choices

o Roman pottery is considered to be practical and of consistently high quality.

o Roman pottery was transported over long distances, and different levels of society had access to quality pottery.

o Archaeologists looking for the remains of Roman pottery concentrate on urban sites because that is where the oldest pieces of kitchenware and amphorae have been found.

o Even though the exact quantity of pottery produced by the Romans is almost impossible to calculate. It is certain that it was produced in large quantities.

o People are not familiar with the whole range of pottery of Romans created because most of the avaiteWe pieces represent only a limited number of styles and shapes.

o It is still unclear to archaeologists what the role of the Roman state in the commercial success of Roman pottery was.

 

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