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托福TPO阅读文本26

2015年10月28日 11:03来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

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托福TPO阅读文本26

Energy and the Industrial Revolution

PARAGRAPH 1

For years historians have sought to identify crucialelements in the eighteenth-century rise in industry,technology, and economic power Known as theIndustrial Revolution, and many give prominence tothe problem of energy. Until the eighteenth century,people relied on energy derived from plants as well asanimal and human muscle to provide powerIncreased efficiency in the use of water and wind helped with such tasks as pumping, milling,or sailing. However, by the eighteenth century, Great Britain in particular was experiencing anenergy shortage. Wood, the primary source of heat for homes and industries and also used inthe iron industry as processed charcoal, was diminishing in supply. Great Britain had largeamounts of coal; however, there were not yet efficient means by which to producemechanical energy or to power machinery. This was to occur with progress in thedevelopment of the steam engine.

PARAGRAPH 2

In the late 1700s James Watt designed an efficient and commercially viable steam enginethat was soon applied to a 1 variety of industrial uses as it became cheaper to use. The enginehelped solve the problem of draining coal mines of groundwater and increased the productionof coal needed to power steam engines elsewhere. A rotary engine attached to the steam engineenabled shafts to be turned and machines to be driven, resulting in mills using steam power tospin and weave cotton. Since the steam engine was fired by coal, the large mills did not needto be located by rivers, as had mills that used water- driven machines. The shift to increasedmechanization in cotton production is apparent in the import of raw cotton and the sale ofcotton goods. Between 1760 and 1850, the amount of raw cotton imported increased 230times. Production of British cotton goods increased sixtyfold, and cotton cloth became GreatBritain's most important product, accounting for one-half of all exports. The success of thesteam engine resulted in increased demands for coal, and the M consequent increase in coalproduction was made possible as the steam-powered pumps drained water from the ever-deeper coal seams found below the water table.

PARAGRAPH 3

The availability of steam power and the demands for new machines facilitated thetransformation of the iron industry. Charcoal, made from wood and thus in limited supply,was replaced with coal-derived coke (substance left after coal is heated) as steam-drivenbellows came into use for producing of raw iron. Impurities were burnt away with the use ofcoke, producing a high-quality refined iron. Reduced cost was also instrumental indeveloping steam-powered rolling mills capable of producing finished iron of various shapesand sizes. The resulting boom in the iron industry expanded the annual iron output by morethan 170 times between 1740 and 1840, and by the 1850s Great Britain was producing moretons of iron than the rest of the world combined. The developments in the iron industry were inpart a response to the demand for more machines and the ever-widening use of higher-quality iron in other industries.

PARAGRAPH 4

Steam power and iron combined to revolutionize transport, which in turn had furtherimplications. Improvements in road construction and sailing had occurred, but shipping heavyfreight over land remained expensive, even with the use of rivers and canals wherever possible.Parallel rails had long been used in j mining operations to move bigger loads, but horses werestill the primary source of power. However, the arrival of the steam engine initiated acomplete transformation in rail transportation, entrenching and expanding the IndustrialRevolution. As transportation improved, distant and larger markets within the nation could bereached, thereby encouraging the development of larger factories to keep pace with increasingsales. Greater productivity and rising demands provided entrepreneurs with profits that couldbe reinvested to take advantage of new technologies to further expand capacity, or to seekalternative investment opportunities. Also, the availability of jobs in railway Jj constructionattracted many rural laborers accustomed to seasonal and temporary employment. Whenthe work was completed, many moved to other construction jobs or to factory work in citiesand towns, where they became part of an expanding working class.

PARAGRAPH 1

For years historians have sought to identify crucial elements in the eighteenth-century rise inindustry, technology, and economic power Known as the Industrial Revolution, and many giveprominence to the problem of energy. Until the eighteenth century, people relied on energyderived from plants as well as animal and human muscle to provide power Increased efficiencyin the use of water and wind helped with such tasks as pumping, milling, or sailing. However,by the eighteenth century, Great Britain in particular was experiencing an energy shortage.Wood, the primary source of heat for homes and industries and also used in the iron industryas processed charcoal, was diminishing in supply. Great Britain had large amounts of coal;however, there were not yet efficient means by which to produce mechanical energy or topower machinery. This was to occur with progress in the development of the steam engine.

1、Why does the author provide the information that "Great Britain had large amounts of coal"?

To reject the claim that Britain was facing an energy shortage in the eighteenth century f

To explain why coal rather than other energy resources became the primary source of heat forhomes and industries in eighteenth-century Britain

To indicate that Britain's energy shortage was not the result of a lack of fuel

To explain why coal mining became an important industry in nineteenth-century

2、What was "the problem of energy" that had to be solved to make the Industrial Revolution ofthe eighteenth century possible?

Water and wind could not be used efficiently.

There was no efficient way to power machinery.

Steam engines required large amounts of coal, which was in short supply.

Neither humans nor animals were strong enough to provide the power required for industrialapplication.

PARAGRAPH 2

In the late 1700s James Watt designed an efficient and commercially viable steam enginethat was soon applied to a 1 variety of industrial uses as it became cheaper to use. The enginehelped solve the problem of draining coal mines of groundwater and increased the productionof coal needed to power steam engines elsewhere. A rotary engine attached to the steam engineenabled shafts to be turned and machines to be driven, resulting in mills using steam power tospin and weave cotton. Since the steam engine was fired by coal, the large mills did not needto be located by rivers, as had mills that used water- driven machines. The shift to increasedmechanization in cotton production is apparent in the import of raw cotton and the sale ofcotton goods. Between 1760 and 1850, the amount of raw cotton imported increased 230times. Production of British cotton goods increased sixtyfold, and cotton cloth became GreatBritain's most important product, accounting for one-half of all exports. The success of thesteam engine resulted in increased demands for coal, and the M consequent increase in coalproduction was made possible as the steam-powered pumps drained water from the ever-deeper coal seams found below the water table.

3、Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as a development in cotton millsbrought about by Watt's steam engine?

The importing of huge quantities of raw cotton by Britain

Increased mechanization

More possibilities for mill location

Smaller mills

4、The phrase "apparent in" in the passage is closest in meaning to

clearly seen in

aid in

associated with

followed By

5、According to paragraph 2, what was Britain's most important export by 1850?

Raw cotton

Cotton cloth

Steam-powered pumps

Coal

6、The word "consequent" in the passage is closest in meaning to

resulting

encouraging

well documented

immediate

7、What is the role of paragraph 2 in the passage as a whole?

It explains how by increasing the supply of raw materials from other countries, Britishindustries were able to reduce costs and increase production.

It explains how the production of mechanical energy and its benefits spread quickly acrosscountries that were linked commercially with Great Britain.

It demonstrates why developments in a single industry could not have caused the IndustrialRevolution.

It illustrates why historians have assigned igreat importance to the issue of energy in the riseof the Industrial Revolution.

PARAGRAPH 3

The availability of steam power and the demands for new machines facilitated thetransformation of the iron industry. Charcoal, made from wood and thus in limited supply,was replaced with coal-derived coke (substance left after coal is heated) as steam-drivenbellows came into use for producing of raw iron. Impurities were burnt away with the use ofcoke, producing a high-quality refined iron. Reduced cost was also instrumental indeveloping steam-powered rolling mills capable of producing finished iron of various shapesand sizes. The resulting boom in the iron industry expanded the annual iron output by morethan 170 times between 1740 and 1840, and by the 1850s Great Britain was producing moretons of iron than the rest of the world combined. The developments in the iron industry were inpart a response to the demand for more machines and the ever-widening use of higher-quality iron in other industries.

8、According to paragraph 3, why was the use of coke important for the iron industry?

It helped make wood into charcoal.

It reduced the dependency on steam-powered machines used for the production of iron.

It replaced charcoal in the production of raw and refined iron.

It powered the machines used to extract coal in coal mines.

9、According to paragraph 3, all of the following were true of the iron industry in Great Britainduring t|| 1800s EXCEPT:

Steam-driven bellows were used to prHlice raw iron.

By the 1850s Britain was the world's largest producer of iron.

Steam-powered mills made it possible to produce iron of different shapes and sizes.

Greater demand for higher-quality iron increased its price.

PARAGRAPH 4

Steam power and iron combined to revolutionize transport, which in turn had furtherimplications. Improvements in road construction and sailing had occurred, but shipping heavyfreight over land remained expensive, even with the use of rivers and canals wherever possible.Parallel rails had long been used in j mining operations to move bigger loads, but horses werestill the primary source of power. However, the arrival of the steam engine initiated acomplete transformation in rail transportation, entrenching and expanding the IndustrialRevolution. As transportation improved, distant and larger markets within the nation could bereached, thereby encouraging the development of larger factories to keep pace with increasingsales. Greater productivity and rising demands provided entrepreneurs with profits that couldbe reinvested to take advantage of new technologies to further expand capacity, or to seekalternative investment opportunities. Also, the availability of jobs in railway Jj constructionattracted many rural laborers accustomed to seasonal and temporary employment. Whenthe work was completed, many moved to other construction jobs or to factory work in citiesand towns, where they became part of an expanding working class.

10、The word "initiated" in the passage is closest in meaning to

anticipated

accelerated

spread

started

11、Paragraph 4 implies which of the following about the transformation in railtransportation?

Because railway construction employed mostly rural laborers, unemployment increasedamong urban workers.

It resulted in more trade within the country, but less trade with markets that could be reachedonly by ocean shipping.

It made shipping freight overland to distant markets less expensive.

It resulted in higher wages for factory workers.

12、The phrase "accustomed to" in the passage is closest in meaning to

in need of

used to

tired of

encouraged by

13、Look at the four squares [] that indicate

where the following sentence could be added to the passage

The first steam-powered locomotives were slow but they rapidly improved in speed and carryingcapacity.

14、 Direction: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the mostimportant ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because theyexpress ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. Thisquestion is worth 2 points.

The coming of the Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century Britain depended on thedevelopment of the steam engine to power machinery.

Answer Choices

A. For years, historians disregarded the issue of energy as a major element in the rise of theIndustrial Revolution and focused instead on technological developments and increasedproduction.

B. The introduction and growth of steam-powered rail transport was a major factor in Britain'seconomic expansion during the Industrial Revolution.

C. An expansion of the Industrial Revolution outside Great Britain occurred when Britishindustries began to import raw cotton and high-quality iron.

D. By 1850, the use of steam power in Britain's mills, mines, and iron industry made Britain aworld leader in the production of cotton cloth and iron.

E. Since the basic infrastructure was in place, the Industrial Revolution fueled itself withenlarging markets requiring ever more expansion of factories and workforce.

F. By the end of the 1800s, railway construction attracted so many laborers that factoriescould not find enough workers to keep up with increasing sales.

Survival of Plants and Animals in Desert Conditions

PARAGRAPH 1

The harsh conditions in deserts are intolerable formost plants and animals. Despite these conditions,however, many varieties of plants and animals haveadapted to deserts in a number of ways. Most planttissues die if their water content falls too low: thenutrients that feed plants are transmitted by water;water is a raw material in the vital process of photosynthesis; and water regulates thetemperature of a plant by its ability to absorb heat and because water vapor lost to theatmosphere through the leaves helps to lower plant temperatures. Water controls the volume ofplant matter produced. The distribution of plants within different areas of desert is alsocontrolled by water. Some areas, because of their soil texture, topographical position, ordistance from rivers or groundwater, have virtually no water available to plants, whereasothers do.

PARAGRAPH 2

The nature of plant life in deserts is also highly dependent on the fact that they have to adaptto the prevailing aridity. There are two general classes of vegetation: long-lived perennials,which may be succulent (water-storing) and are often dwarfed and woody, and annuals orephemerals, which have a short life cycle and may form a fairly dense stand immediately afterrain.

PARAGRAPH 3

The ephemeral plants evade drought. Given a year of favorable precipitation, such plantswill develop vigorously and produce large numbers of flowers and fruit. This replenishes theseed content of the desert soil. The seeds then lie dormant until the next wet year, when thedesert blooms again.

PARAGRAPH 4

The perennial vegetation adjusts to the aridity by mear of various avoidance mechanisms.Most desert plants are 11 probably best classified as xerophytes. They possess drought-resisting adaptations: loss of water through the leaves is reduced by means of dense hairscovering waxy leaf surfaces, by the closure of pores during the hottest times to reduce waterloss, am by the rolling up or shedding of leaves at the beginning of the dry season. Somexerophytes, the succulents (including cacti), store water in their structures. Another way ofcountering drought is to have a limited amount of mass above ground and to have extensiveroot networks below ground. It is not unusual for the roots of some desert perennials toextend downward more than ten meters. Some plants are woody in type — an adaptationdesigned to prevent collapse of the plant tissue when water stress produces wilting. Anotherclass of desert plant is the phreatophyte. These have adapted to the environment by thedevelopment of long taproots that penetrate downward until they approach the assuredwater supply provided by groundwater. Among these plants are the date palm, tamarisk, andmesquite. They commonly grow near stream channels, springs, or on the margins of lakes.

PARAGRAPH 5

Animals also have to adapt to desert conditions, and they may do it through two forms ofbehavioral adaptation: they either escape or retreat. Escape involves such actions asaestivation, a condition of prolonged dormancy, or torpor, during which animals reduce theirmetabolic rate and body temperature during the hot season or during very dry spells.

PARAGRAPH 6

Seasonal migration is another form of escape, especially for large mammals or birds. Theterm retreat is applied I to the short-term escape behavior of desert animals, and it usuallyassumes the pattern of a daily rhythm. Birds shelter in nests, rock overhangs, trees, anddense shrubs to avoid the hottest hours of the day, while mammals like the kangaroo ratburrow underground.

PARAGRAPH 7

Some animals have behavioral, physiological, and morphological (structural) adaptations thatenable them to withstand extreme conditions. For example, the ostrich has 1 plumage thatis so constructed that the feathers are long but not \ too dense. When conditions are hot, theostrich erects them on its 1 back, thus increasing the thickness of the barrier between solarradiation and the skin. The sparse distribution of the feathers, however, also allowsconsiderable lateral air movement over the skin surface, thereby permitting further heatloss by convection.Furthermore, the birds orient themselves carefully with regard to the Sunan0 gently flap their wings to increase convection cooling.

PARAGRAPH 1

The harsh conditions in deserts are intolerable for most plants and animals. Despite theseconditions, however, many varieties of plants and animals have adapted to deserts in a numberof ways. Most plant tissues die if their water content falls too low: the nutrients that feed plantsare transmitted by water; water is a raw material in the vital process of photosynthesis; andwater regulates the temperature of a plant by its ability to absorb heat and because watervapor lost to the atmosphere through the leaves helps to lower plant temperatures. Watercontrols the volume of plant matter produced. The distribution of plants within different areasof desert is also controlled by water. Some areas, because of their soil texture, topographicalposition, or distance from rivers or groundwater, have virtually no water available to plants,whereas others do.

1、According to paragraph 1, water provides all of the following essential functions for plantsEXCEPT

improving plants' ability to absorb sunlight

preventing plants from becoming overheated

transporting nutrients

serving as a raw material for photosynthesis

PARAGRAPH 3

The ephemeral plants evade drought. Given a year of favorable precipitation, such plantswill develop vigorously and produce large numbers of flowers and fruit. This replenishes theseed content of the desert soil. The seeds then lie dormant until the next wet year, when thedesert blooms again.

2、Paragraph 3 suggests that during a dry year ephemerals

produce even more seeds than in a wet year

do not sprout from their seeds

bloom much later than in a wet year

are more plentiful than perennials

PARAGRAPH 2

The nature of plant life in deserts is also highly dependent on the fact that they have to adaptto the prevailing aridity. There are two general classes of vegetation: long-lived perennials,which may be succulent (water-storing) and are often dwarfed and woody, and annuals orephemerals, which have a short life cycle and may form a fairly dense stand immediately afterrain.

PARAGRAPH 3

The ephemeral plants evade drought. Given a year of favorable precipitation, such plantswill develop vigorously and produce large numbers of flowers and fruit. This replenishes theseed content of the desert soil. The seeds then lie dormant until the next wet year, when thedesert blooms again.

3、How is paragraph 2 related to paragraph 3?

Paragraph 2 provides a general description of desc plants, and paragraph 3 provides ascientific explanation for these observations.

Paragraph 2 divides desert plants into two categories, and paragraph 3 provides furtherinformation about one of these categories.

Paragraph 2 proposes one way of dividing desert plants into categories, and paragraph 3explains one problem with this method of classification.

Paragraph 2 discusses two categories of desert plants, and paragraph 3 introduces a thirdcategory of plants.

4、 In saying that ephemerals will develop "vigorously" when there is favorableprecipitation, the author means that their development will be

sudden

early

gradual

strong

healthy

PARAGRAPH 4

The perennial vegetation adjusts to the aridity by mear of various avoidance mechanisms.Most desert plants are 11 probably best classified as xerophytes. They possess drought-resisting adaptations: loss of water through the leaves is reduced by means of dense hairscovering waxy leaf surfaces, by the closure of pores during the hottest times to reduce waterloss, am by the rolling up or shedding of leaves at the beginning of the dry season. Somexerophytes, the succulents (including cacti), store water in their structures. Another way ofcountering drought is to have a limited amount of mass above ground and to have extensiveroot networks below ground. It is not unusual for the roots of some desert perennials toextend downward more than ten meters. Some plants are woody in type — an adaptationdesigned to prevent collapse of the plant tissue when water stress produces wilting. Anotherclass of desert plant is the phreatophyte. These have adapted to the environment by thedevelopment of long taproots that penetrate downward until they approach the assuredwater supply provided by groundwater. Among these plants are the date palm, tamarisk, andmesquite. They commonly grow near stream channels, springs, or on the margins of lakes.

5、The word "countering" in the passage is closest in meaning to

eliminating

making use of

acting against

experiencing

6、According to paragraph 4, some desert plants with root systems that are extraordinarily welldeveloped have

relatively little growth aboveground

very leafy aboveground structures

nonwoody plant tissue resistant to wilting

water stored within their roots

7、The word "assured" in the passage is closest in meaning to

pure

diminished

guaranteed

deep

8、What do "the date palm, tamarisk, and mesquite" have in common?

They are always found together.

They depend on surface water provided by streams, springs, and lakes.

They are phreatophytes.

Their roots are capable of breaking through hard soils

PARAGRAPH 5

Animals also have to adapt to desert conditions, and they may do it through two forms ofbehavioral adaptation: they either escape or retreat. Escape involves such actions asaestivation, a condition of prolonged dormancy, or torpor, during which animals reduce theirmetabolic rate and body temperature during the hot season or during very dry spells.

9、 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted 1sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave outessential information.

One way animals escape is by entering a state of extended dormancy, known as aestivation,during the hottest and driest times of year.

Animals can escape without using direct action, or aestivation, simply by reducing theirmetabolic rate and body temperature.

The actions that an animal uses to escape are known as aestivation, which sometimes involvesa reduction in metabolic rate or body temperature.

When the weather is especially hot and dry, an animal may suffer from a condition known asaestivation, at which point the animal needs to escape.

10、It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that all of the places desert animals retreat to

provide shade from the sun

sometimes become crowded

are places where supplies of food are plentiful

leave the animals vulnerable to predators

PARAGRAPH 7

Some animals have behavioral, physiological, and morphological (structural) adaptations thatenable them to withstand extreme conditions. For example, the ostrich has 1 plumage thatis so constructed that the feathers are long but not \ too dense. When conditions are hot, theostrich erects them on its 1 back, thus increasing the thickness of the barrier between solarradiation and the skin. The sparse distribution of the feathers, however, also allowsconsiderable lateral air movement over the skin surface, thereby permitting further heatloss by convection.Furthermore, the birds orient themselves carefully with regard to the Sunan0 gently flap their wings to increase convection cooling.

11、According to paragraph 7, what special adaptation helps the ostrich cope with hot desertconditions?

Each of its feathers is very short and dense.

Its wings produce only lateral air movement when flapping.

Its feathers are very thickly set on both its back and its wings.

It can make its feathers stand up on its If back.

12、Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to thepassage.

The increase in reward still did not attract young people to this hard life, and convictedcriminals and slaves were pressed into services

Where would the sentence best fit?

PARAGRAPH 1

The harsh conditions in deserts are intolerable for most plants and animals. Despite theseconditions, however, many varieties of plants and animals have adapted to deserts in a numberof ways. Most plant tissues die if their water content falls too low: the nutrients that feed plantsare transmitted by water; water is a raw material in the vital process of photosynthesis; andwater regulates the temperature of a plant by its ability to absorb heat and because watervapor lost to the atmosphere through the leaves helps to lower plant temperatures. Watercontrols the volume of plant matter produced. The distribution of plants within different areasof desert is also controlled by water. Some areas, because of their soil texture, topographicalposition, or distance from rivers or groundwater, have virtually no water available to plants,whereas others do.

13. Directions: From the seven statements below, select the statements that correctlycharacterize breathing during wakefulness and those statements that correctly characterizebreathing during sleep. Drag each answer choice you select into the appropriate box of thetable. Two of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.

Adaptations of Annuals BF

Five of the phrases will NOT be used.

A. Woody structures

B. Explosive growth in wet years

C. Long, thin, shallow roots

D. Storage of water in plant tissue

E. Minimization of the amount of water used for

Adaptations of Perennials ADG

Four of the phrases will NOT be used,

A. Woody structures

B. Explosive growth in wet years

C. Long, thin, shallow roots

D. Storage of water in plant tissue

E. Minimization of the amount of water used for photosynthesis

F. Short life cycle

G. Leaves designed to minimize water loss

Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East

The earliest of the city states of the ancient Near Eastappeared at the southern end of the Mesopotamianplain, the area between the Tigris and Euphratesrivers in what is now Iraq. It was here that thecivilization known as Sumer emerged in its earliestform in the fifth millennium. At first sight, the plaindid not appear to be a likely home for a civilization.There were few natural resources, no timber, stone,or metals. Rainfall was limited, and what water there was rushed across the plain in theannual flood of melted snow. As the plain fell only 20 meters in 500 kilometers, the beds ofthe rivers shifted constantly. It was this that made the organization of irrigation, particularlythe building of canals to channel and preserve the water, essential. Once this was done andthe silt carried down by the rivers was planted, the rewards were rich: four to five times whatrain-fed earth would produce. It was these conditions that allowed an elite to emerge,probably as an organizing class, and to sustain itself through the control of surplus crops.

PARAGRAPH 2

It is difficult to isolate the factors that led to the next development—the emergence of urbansettlements. The earliest, that of Eridu, about 4500 B.C.E., and Uruk, a thousand years later,center on impressive temple complexes built of mud brick. In some way, the elite hadassociated themselves with the power of the gods. Uruk, for instance, had two patron gods—Anu, the god of the sky and sovereign of all other gods, and inanna, a goddess of love andwar—and there were others, patrons of different cities. Human beings were at their mercy. Thebiblical story of the Flood may originate in Sumer. In the earliest version, the gods destroy thehuman race because its clamor had been so disturbing to them.

PARAGRAPH 3

It used to be believed that before 3000 B.C.E. the political and economic life of the cities wascentered on their temples, but it now seems probable that the cities had secular rulers fromearliest times. Within the city lived administrators, craftspeople, and merchants. (Trading wasimportant, as so many raw materials, the semiprecious stones for the decoration of thetemples, timbers for roofs, and all metals, had to be imported.) An increasingly sophisticatedsystem of administration led in about 3300 B.C.E. to the appearance of writing. The earliestscript was based on logograms, with a symbol being used to express a whole word. Thelogograms were incised on damp clay tablets with a stylus with a wedge shape at its end. (TheRomans called the shape cuneus and this gives the script its name of cuneiform.) Twothousand logograms have been recorded from these early centuries of writing. A moreeconomical approach was to use a sign to express not a whole word but a single syllable. (Totake an example: the Sumerian word for" head" was "sag." Whenever a word including asyllable in which the sound "sag" was to be written, the sign for "sag" could be used to expressthat syllable with the remaining syllables of the word expressed by other signs.) By 2300B.C.E. the number of signs required had been reduced to 600, and the range of words thatcould be expressed had widened. Texts dealing with economic matters predominated, as theyalways had done; but at this point works of theology, g literature, history, and law alsoappeared.

PARAGRAPH 4

Other innovations of the late fourth millennium include the wheel, probably developed first asa more efficient way of making pottery and then transferred to transport. A tablet engravedabout 3000 B.C.E. provides the earliest known example from Sumer, a roofed boxlike sledgemounted on four solid wheels. A major development was the discovery, again about 3000B.C.E., that if copper, which had been known in Mesopotamia since about 3500 B.C.E., wasmixed with tin, a much harder metal, bronze, would result. Although copper and stone toolscontinued to be used, bronze was far more successful in creating sharp edges that could beused as anything from saws and scythes to weapons. The period from 3000 to 1000 B.C.E.,when the use of bronze became I widespread, is normally referred to as the Bronze Age.

PARAGRAPH 1

The earliest of the city states of the ancient Near East appeared at the southern end of theMesopotamian plain, the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq. Itwas here that the civilization known as Sumer emerged in its earliest form in the fifthmillennium. At first sight, the plain did not appear to be a likely home for a civilization. Therewere few natural resources, no timber, stone, or metals. Rainfall was limited, and what waterthere was rushed across the plain in the annual flood of melted snow. As the plain fell only 20meters in 500 kilometers, the beds of the rivers shifted constantly. It was this that made theorganization of irrigation, particularly the building of canals to channel and preserve thewater, essential. Once this was done and the silt carried down by the rivers was planted, therewards were rich: four to five times what rain-fed earth would produce. It was theseconditions that allowed an elite to emerge, probably as an organizing class, and to sustainitself through the control of surplus crops.

PARAGRAPH 1

The earliest of the city states of the ancient Near East appeared at the southern end of theMesopotamian plain, the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq. Itwas here that the civilization known as Sumer emerged in its earliest form in the fifthmillennium. At first sight, the plain did not appear to be a likely home for a civilization. Therewere few natural resources, no timber, stone, or metals. Rainfall was limited, and what waterthere was rushed across the plain in the annual flood of melted snow. As the plain fell only 20meters in 500 kilometers, the beds of the rivers shifted constantly. It was this that made theorganization of irrigation, particularly the building of canals to channel and preserve thewater, essential. Once this was done and the silt carried down by the rivers was planted, therewards were rich: four to five times what rain-fed earth would produce. It was theseconditions that allowed an elite to emerge, probably as an organizing class, and to sustainitself through the control of surplus crops.

1、Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 1 as a disadvantage of theMesopotamian plain?

There was not very much rainfall for most of the year.

Melting snow caused flooding every year.

The silt deposited by rivers damaged crops.

Timber, stone and metals were not readily available.

2、According to paragraph 1, which of the following made it possible for an elite to emerge?

New crops were developed that were better suited to conditions on the Mesopotamian plain.

The richest individuals managed to gain control of the most valuable cropland.

Control over the few available natural resources made some people four to five times richerthan everyone else.

The building of canals to increase agricultural output required organization.

3、The word "sustain" in the passage is closest in meaning to

defend

promote

maintain

transform

PARAGRAPH 2

It is difficult to isolate the factors that led to the next development—the emergence of urbansettlements. The earliest, that of Eridu, about 4500 B.C.E., and Uruk, a thousand years later,center on impressive temple complexes built of mud brick. In some way, the elite hadassociated themselves with the power of the gods. Uruk, for instance, had two patron gods—Anu, the god of the sky and sovereign of all other gods, and inanna, a goddess of love andwar—and there were others, patrons of different cities. Human beings were at their mercy. Thebiblical story of the Flood may originate in Sumer. In the earliest version, the gods destroy thehuman race because its clamor had been so disturbing to them.

4、According to paragraph 2, Eridu and Uruk are examples of urban settlements that

lacked the features usually found in other early urban settlements f

developed around religious buildings

grew much more rapidly than most of the urban settlements found in Sumer

were mysteriously destroyed and abandoned

5、The word "sovereign" in the passage is closest in meaning to

counselor

master

defender

creator

PARAGRAPH 3

It used to be believed that before 3000 B.C.E. the political and economic life of the cities wascentered on their temples, but it now seems probable that the cities had secular rulers fromearliest times. Within the city lived administrators, craftspeople, and merchants. (Trading wasimportant, as so many raw materials, the semiprecious stones for the decoration of thetemples, timbers for roofs, and all metals, had to be imported.) An increasingly sophisticatedsystem of administration led in about 3300 B.C.E. to the appearance of writing. The earliestscript was based on logograms, with a symbol being used to express a whole word. Thelogograms were incised on damp clay tablets with a stylus with a wedge shape at its end. (TheRomans called the shape cuneus and this gives the script its name of cuneiform.) Twothousand logograms have been recorded from these early centuries of writing. A moreeconomical approach was to use a sign to express not a whole word but a single syllable. (Totake an example: the Sumerian word for" head" was "sag." Whenever a word including asyllable in which the sound "sag" was to be written, the sign for "sag" could be used to expressthat syllable with the remaining syllables of the word expressed by other signs.) By 2300B.C.E. the number of signs required had been reduced to 600, and the range of words thatcould be expressed had widened. Texts dealing with economic matters predominated, as theyalways had done; but at this point works of theology, g literature, history, and law alsoappeared.

6、According to paragraph 3, which of the following led to the appearance of writing?

An increasingly sophisticated administrative system

Coordination between secular and religious leaders

The large volume of trade, particularly imports

A rapidly expanding and changing population Paragraph 3 is marked with

7、 In paragraph 3, why does the author provide the information that the number of signs inuse had dropped from 2,000 to 600 by 2300 B.C.E.?

To argue that the development of writing involved periods of growth followed by periods ofdecline

To demonstrate that earlier written texts used a larger vocabulary than later texts, which wereaimed at a broader audience |

To support the claim that the range of words expressed by logograms varied widelydepending on time period and type of text

To provide evidence for the increased efficiency of using signs to express syllables rather thanwhole words

8、According to paragraph 3, ancient texts most commonly dealt with

theology

literature

economics

law

PARAGRAPH 4

Other innovations of the late fourth millennium include the wheel, probably developed first asa more efficient way of making pottery and then transferred to transport. A tablet engravedabout 3000 B.C.E. provides the earliest known example from Sumer, a roofed boxlike sledgemounted on four solid wheels. A major development was the discovery, again about 3000B.C.E., that if copper, which had been known in Mesopotamia since about 3500 B.C.E., wasmixed with tin, a much harder metal, bronze, would result. Although copper and stone toolscontinued to be used, bronze was far more successful in creating sharp edges that could beused as anything from saws and scythes to weapons. The period from 3000 to 1000 B.C.E.,when the use of bronze became I widespread, is normally referred to as the Bronze Age.

9、According to paragraph 4, the earliest wheels probably

were first developed in areas outside Mesopotamia

were used to make pottery

appeared on boxlike sledges

were used to transport goods between cities

10、The word "engraved* in the passage is closest in meaning to

carved

produced

dated

discovered

11、 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlightedsentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave outessential information.

Also around 3000 B.C.E., it was discovered that mixing copper, known from about 3500 B.C.E.,with tin would create a much harder metal known as bronze.

Although copper had been known since 3500 B.C.E in Mesopotamia, the discovery of bronze didnot occur until around 3000 B.C.E.

Another major development around 3000 B.C.E. was the discovery that copper could be mixedwith a much harder metal known as tin.

The development of bronze by mixing copper and tin probably occurred around 3000 B.C.E. butmay have happened as early as 3500 B.C.E.

12、The word "widespread" in the passage is closest in meaning to

obvious

significant

necessary

common

13、Look at the four squares [ ]that indicate where the following sentence could be added tothe passage.

City life was diverse, and the population was engaged in a variety of occupations.

PARAGRAPH 3

It used to be believed that before 3000 B.C.E. the political and economic life of the cities wascentered on their temples, but it now seems probable that the cities had secular rulers fromearliest times. Within the city lived administrators, craftspeople, and merchants. (Trading wasimportant, as so many raw materials, the semiprecious stones for the decoration of thetemples, timbers for roofs, and all metals, had to be imported.) An increasingly sophisticatedsystem of administration led in about 3300 B.C.E. to the appearance of writing. The earliestscript was based on logograms, with a symbol being used to express a whole word. Thelogograms were incised on damp clay tablets with a stylus with a wedge shape at its end. (TheRomans called the shape cuneus and this gives the script its name of cuneiform.) Twothousand logograms have been recorded from these early centuries of writing. A moreeconomical approach was to use a sign to express not a whole word but a single syllable. (Totake an example: the Sumerian word for" head" was "sag." Whenever a word including asyllable in which the sound "sag" was to be written, the sign for "sag" could be used to expressthat syllable with the remaining syllables of the word expressed by other signs.) By 2300B.C.E. the number of signs required had been reduced to 600, and the range of words thatcould be expressed had widened. Texts dealing with economic matters predominated, as theyalways had done; but at this point works of theology, g literature, history, and law alsoappeared.

14、Direction: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the mostimportant ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because theyexpress ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. Thisquestion is worth 2 points.

Irrigation made it possible for the civilization known as sumer to arise on the Mesopotamianplain in the fifth millennium B.C.E.

Answer Choices

A. The scarcity of natural resources on the plain made it necessary for a powerful elite toemerge and take charge of trade and imports.

B. The economy of each city was based on a craft such as pottery or metal working, and thecity of Eridu was known for its saws, scythes and weapons.

C. Writing appeared in the form of logograms and later developed into a system using signs torepresent syllables rather than whole words.

D. Priests were powerful figures in the ancient civilization and controlled the political andeconomic life of the cities.

E. The earliest city states had one or more patron gods and were built around central templecomplexe

F. The development of the wheel and the creation of bronze were important innovations inSumer

 

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