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托福TPO16阅读原文

2015年07月13日 11:50来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

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Trade and the Ancient Middle East

Trade was the mainstay of the urban economy in the Middle East, as caravans negotiated the surrounding desert, restricted only by access to water and by mountain ranges. This has been so since ancient times, partly due to the geology of the area, which is mostly limestone and sandstone, with few deposits of metallic ore and other useful materials Ancient demands for obsidian (a black volcanic rock useful for making mirrors and tools) led to trade with Armenia to the north, while jade for cutting tools was brought from Turkistan, and the precious stone lapis lazuli was imported from Afghanistan. One can trace such expeditions back to ancient Sumeria, the earliest known Middle Eastern civilization. Records show merchant caravans and trading posts set up by the Sumerians in the surrounding mountains and deserts of Persia and Arabia, where they traded grain for raw materials, such as timber and stones, as well as for metals and gems.

Reliance on trade had several important consequences. Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership.

This mode of craft production favored the growth of self-governing and ideologically egalitarian craft guilds everywhere in the Middle Eastern city. These were essentially professional associations that provided for the mutual aid and protection of their members, and allowed for the maintenance of professional standards. The growth of independent guilds was furthered by the fact that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading; the government left working people to govern themselves, much as shepherds of tribal confederacies were left alone by their leaders. In the multiplicity of small-scale local egalitarian or quasi-egalitarian organizations for fellowship, worship, and production that flourished in this laissez-faire environment, individuals could interact with one another within a community of harmony and ideological equality, following their own popularly elected leaders and governing themselves by shared consensus while minimizing distinctions of wealth and power.

The mercantile economy was also characterized by a peculiar moral stance that is typical of people who live by trade—an attitude that is individualistic, calculating, risk taking, and adaptive to circumstances. As among tribespeople, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy with little regulation, where one's word is one's bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network. Nor have merchants and artisans ever had much tolerance for aristocratic professions of moral superiority, favoring instead an egalitarian ethic of the open market, where steady hard work, the loyalty of one's fellows, and entrepreneurial skill make all the difference. And, like the pastoralists, Middle Eastern merchants and artisans unhappy with their environment could simply pack up and leave for greener pastures—an act of self-assertion wholly impossible in most other civilizations throughout history.

Dependence on long-distance trade also meant that the great empires of the Middle East were built both literally and figuratively on shifting sand. The central state, though often very rich and very populous, was intrinsically fragile, since the development of new international trade routes could undermine the monetary base and erode state power, as occurred when European seafarers circumvented Middle Eastern merchants after Vasco da Gama's voyage around Africa in the late fifteenth century opened up a southern route. The ecology of the region also permitted armed predators to prowl the surrounding barrens, which were almost impossible for a state to control. Peripheral peoples therefore had a great advantage in their dealings with the center, making government authority insecure and anxious.

Paragraph 1: Trade was the mainstay of the urban economy in the Middle East, as caravans negotiated the surrounding desert, restricted only by access to water and by mountain ranges. This has been so since ancient times, partly due to the geology of the area, which is mostly limestone and sandstone, with few deposits of metallic ore and other useful materials Ancient demands for obsidian (a black volcanic rock useful for making mirrors and tools) led to trade with Armenia to the north, while jade for cutting tools was brought from Turkistan, and the precious stone lapis lazuli was imported from Afghanistan. One can trace such expeditions back to ancient Sumeria, the earliest known Middle Eastern civilization. Records show merchant caravans and trading posts set up by the Sumerians in the surrounding mountains and deserts of Persia and Arabia, where they traded grain for raw materials, such as timber and stones, as well as for metals and gems.

1. According to paragraph 1, why has trade been so important throughout the history of the Middle East

○The rare and valuable metals and stones found in Middle Eastern deserts have always been in high demand in surrounding areas.

○Growing conditions throughout the Middle East are generally poor, forcing Middle Eastern people to depend on imported grain.

○Many useful and decorative raw materials cannot be found naturally in the Middle East but are available from neighboring regions.

○Frequent travel, due to limited water supplies in the Middle East, created many opportunities for trade with neighboring societies.

Paragraph 2: Reliance on trade had several important consequences. Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership.

2. The word “repudiate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○respect

○reject

○review

○revise

3. According to paragraph 2, how did Middle Eastern shop owners treat their workers?

○Workers were ranked according to their skill level, with the most-experienced artisans becoming partial owners of the shop.

○Shop owners treated different workers differently depending on how much the workers had in common with their masters.

○Workers were bound to their masters by unbreakable contracts that strictly defined the terms of their partnership.

○The shop owner worked alongside the workers and often considered them partner and members of the family.

Paragraph 3: This mode of craft production favored the growth of self-governing and ideologically egalitarian craft guilds everywhere in the Middle Eastern city. These were essentially professional associations that provided for the mutual aid and protection of their members, and allowed for the maintenance of professional standards. The growth of independent guilds was furthered by the fact that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading; the government left working people to govern themselves, much as shepherds of tribal confederacies were left alone by their leaders. In the multiplicity of small-scale local egalitarian or quasi-egalitarian organizations for fellowship, worship, and production that flourished in this laissez-faire environment, individuals could interact with one another within a community of harmony and ideological equality, following their own popularly elected leaders and governing themselves by shared consensus while minimizing distinctions of wealth and power.

4. The author includes the information that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading in order to

○support the claim that the mode of production made possible by the craft guilds w very good for trade

○contrast the economic base of the city government with that of the tribal confederacies

○provide a reason why the government allowed the guilds to be self-controlled

○suggest that the government was missing out on a valuable opportunity to tax the guilds

5. According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of the Middle Eastern craft guilds EXCEPT:

○The guilds were created to support workers and to uphold principles of high-quality craft production.

○Each guild was very large and included members from a broad geographic area.

○The leaders of the guilds were chosen by popular vote.

○All guild members were treated as equals.

6. The word “consensus” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○authority

○responsibility

○custom

○agreement

Paragraph 4: The mercantile economy was also characterized by a peculiar moral stance that is typical of people who live by trade—an attitude that is individualistic, calculating, risk taking, and adaptive to circumstances. As among tribes people, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy with little regulation, where one's word is one's bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network. Nor have merchants and artisans ever had much tolerance for aristocratic professions of moral superiority, favoring instead an egalitarian ethic of the open market, where steady hard work, the loyalty of one's fellows, and entrepreneurial skill make all the difference. And, like the pastoralists, Middle Eastern merchants and artisans unhappy with their environment could simply pack up and leave for greener pastures—an act of self-assertion wholly impossible in most other civilizations throughout history.

7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was NOT necessary for success in the mercantile economy?

○Good business sense

○Reliable associates

○Family wealth

○Constant effort

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○Tribes people were comfortable forming personal relationships with merchants, who, like them, were bound by their promises to one another.

○Because trade was not formally regulated, merchants were careful about whom they trusted and often conducted business with people they knew personally.

○While trade among merchants relied somewhat on regulation, among tribes people trade was based on personal relationships and careful character evaluation.

○Because tribes people were bound only by their promises to one another, personal relationships were formed only after careful weighing of character.

9. The word “ethic” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○set of moral principles

○division of labor

○economic system

○test of character

10. According to paragraph 4, what choice did Middle Eastern merchants and artisans have that many other people have not had?

○If they were unhappy in the mercantile environment, they could draw on personal connections to find a different kind of work.

○They were allowed to assert their opinions without having to listen to aristocratic professions of moral superiority.

○Following the example of the pastoralists, they could demand, and receive, better working conditions.

○If they didn't like their environment, they could move somewhere else.

Paragraph 5: Dependence on long-distance trade also meant that the great empires of the Middle East were built both literally and figuratively on shifting sand. The central state, though often very rich and very populous, was intrinsically fragile, since the development of new international trade routes could undermine the monetary base and erode state power, as occurred when European seafarers circumvented Middle Eastern merchants after Vasco da Gama's voyage around Africa in the late fifteenth century opened up a southern route. The ecology of the region also permitted armed predators to prowl the surrounding barrens, which were almost impossible for a state to control. Peripheral peoples therefore had a great advantage in their dealings with the center, making government authority insecure and anxious.

11. The word “intrinsically” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○fundamentally

○surprisingly

○consequently

○particularly

12.In paragraph 5, why does the author mention the new trade route opened up by Vasco da Gama's fifteenth century voyage around Africa?

○To provide evidence that European seafarers took every opportunity to bypass Middle Eastern merchants

○To present an instance in which Middle Eastern states lost money and power because of their reliance on long-distance trade

○To argue this new route became necessary when European seafarers wanted to avoid Middle Eastern states whose central power had begun to erode

○To explain how da Gama helped European traders avoid the dangerous predators prowling the areas surrounding Middle Eastern cities

Paragraph2: Reliance on trade had several important consequences. ■Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. ■In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. ■The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership. ■

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

For one thing, it created a demand for finished goods to be sold both locally and abroad.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Since ancient times. reliance on trade has shaped the culture and organizational structure of Middle Eastern societies.

Answer Choices

1. Persian and Arabian merchants traveled great distances to sell their finished goods at the marketplaces of ancient Sumeria.

2. Revenue from trade was unevenly distributed, causing Middle Eastern societies to be characterized by growing distinctions in wealth and power.

3. Qualities that were valued in the mercantile economy included individualism, hard work, loyalty, and the willingness to take risks.

4. As production increased, centralized control over production also increased, leading in turn to more-centralized control over fellowship and worship.

5. Crafts were produced by skilled artisans working in close, egalitarian relationships with their masters and other fellow guild members.

6. The stability of Middle Eastern governments was threatened by their lack of control over international trade patterns and over their own peripheral territories.

参考答案:

1. ○3

2. ○2

3. ○4

4. ○3

5. ○2

6. ○4

7. ○3

8.○2

9. ○1

10. ○4

11. ○1

12. ○2

13. ○1

14. Qualities that were

Crafts were produced

The stability of Middle

Development of the Periodic Table

The periodic table is a chart that reflects the periodic recurrence of chemical and physical properties of the elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). It is a monumental scientific achievement, and its development illustrates the essential interplay between observation, prediction, and testing required for scientific progress. In the 1800's scientists were searching for new elements. By the late 1860's more than 60 chemical elements had been identified, and much was known about their descriptive chemistry. Various proposals were put forth to arrange the elements into groups based on similarities in chemical and physical properties. The next step was to recognize a connection between group properties (physical or chemical similarities) and atomic mass (the measured mass of an individual atom of an element). When the elements known at the time were ordered by increasing atomic mass, it was found that successive elements belonged to different chemical groups and that the order of the groups in this sequence was fixed and repeated itself at regular intervals. Thus when the series of elements was written so as to begin a new horizontal row with each alkali metal, elements of the same groups were automatically assembled in vertical columns in a periodic table of the elements. This table was the forerunner of the modern table.

When the German chemist Lothar Meyer and (independently) the Russian Dmitry Mendeleyev first introduced the periodic table in 1869-70, one-third of the naturally occurring chemical elements had not yet been discovered. Yet both chemists were sufficiently farsighted to leave gaps where their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties indicated that new elements should be located. Mendeleyev was bolder than Meyer and even assumed that if a measured atomic mass put an element in the wrong place in the table, the atomic mass was wrong. In some cases this was true. Indium, for example, had previously been assigned an atomic mass between those of arsenic and selenium. Because there is no space in the periodic table between these two elements, Mendeleyev suggested that the atomic mass of indium be changed to a completely different value, where it would fill an empty space between cadmium and tin. In fact, subsequent work has shown that in a periodic table, elements should not be ordered strictly by atomic mass. For example, tellurium comes before iodine in the periodic table, even though its atomic mass is slightly greater. Such anomalies are due to the relative abundance of the "isotopes" or varieties of each element. All the isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in their number of neutrons, and hence in their atomic mass. The isotopes of a given element have the same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties. We now know that atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus), not atomic mass number (the number of protons and neutrons), determines chemical behavior.

Mendeleyev went further than Meyer in another respect: he predicted the properties of six elements yet to be discovered. For example, a gap just below aluminum suggested a new element would be found with properties analogous to those of aluminum. Mendeleyev designated this element "eka-aluminum" (eka is the Sanskrit word for "next") and predicted its properties. Just five years later an element with the proper atomic mass was isolated and named gallium by its discoverer. The close correspondence between the observed properties of gallium and Mendeleyev’s predictions for eka-aluminum lent strong support to the periodic law. Additional support came in 1885 when eka-silicon, which had also been described in advance by Mendeleyev, was discovered and named germanium.

The structure of the periodic table appeared to limit the number of possible elements. It was therefore quite surprising when John William Strut (Lord Rayleigh, discovered a gaseous element in 1894 that did not fit into the previous classification scheme. A century earlier, Henry Cavendish had noted the existence of a residual gas when oxygen and nitrogen are removed from air, but its importance had not been realized. Together with William Ramsay, Rayleigh isolated the gas (separating it from other substances into its pure state) and named it argon. Ramsay then studied a gas that was present in natural gas deposits and discovered that it was helium, an element whose presence in the Sun had been noted earlier in the spectrum of sunlight but that had not previously been known on Earth. Rayleigh and Ramsay postulated the existence of a new group of elements, and in 1898 other members of the series (neon, krypton, and xenon) were isolated.

Paragraph 1: The periodic table is a chart that reflects the periodic recurrence of chemical and physical properties of the elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). It is a monumental scientific achievement, and its development illustrates the essential interplay between observation, prediction, and testing required for scientific progress. In the 1800's scientists were searching for new elements. By the late 1860's more than 60 chemical elements had been identified, and much was known about their descriptive chemistry. Various proposals were put forth to arrange the elements into groups based on similarities in chemical and physical properties. The next step was to recognize a connection between group properties (physical or chemical similarities) and atomic mass (the measured mass of an individual atom of an element). When the elements known at the time were ordered by increasing atomic mass, it was found that successive elements belonged to different chemical groups and that the order of the groups in this sequence was fixed and repeated itself at regular intervals. Thus when the series of elements was written so as to begin a new horizontal row with each alkali metal, elements of the same groups were automatically assembled in vertical columns in a periodic table of the elements. This table was the forerunner of the modern table.

1. The phrase interplay in the passage is closest in meaning to

○sequence

○interpretation

○requirement

○interaction

2. According to paragraph 1, what pattern did scientists notice when the known elements were written in order of increasing atomic mass?

○The elements of the group of alkali metals were the first elements in the order of increasing atomic mass.

○Repetition of the same atomic masses for elements in different groups appeared.

○Elements with similar chemical properties appeared in the listing at regular intervals.

○Elements were chemically most similar to those just before and after them in the order.

Paragraph 2: When the German chemist Lothar Meyer and (independently) the Russian Dmitry Mendeleyev first introduced the periodic table in 1869-70, one-third of the naturally occurring chemical elements had not yet been discovered. Yet both chemists were sufficiently farsighted to leave gaps where their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties indicated that new elements should be located. Mendeleyev was bolder than Meyer and even assumed that if a measured atomic mass put an element in the wrong place in the table, the atomic mass was wrong. In some cases this was true. Indium, for example, had previously been assigned an atomic mass between those of arsenic and selenium. Because there is no space in the periodic table between these two elements, Mendeleyev suggested that the atomic mass of indium be changed to a completely different value, where it would fill an empty space between cadmium and tin. In fact, subsequent work has shown that in a periodic table, elements should not be ordered strictly by atomic mass. For example, tellurium comes before iodine in the periodic table, even though its atomic mass is slightly greater. Such anomalies are due to the relative abundance of the "isotopes" or varieties of each element. All the isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in their number of neutrons, and hence in their atomic mass. The isotopes of a given element have the same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties. We now know that atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus), not atomic mass number (the number of protons and neutrons), determines chemical behavior.

3. In paragraph 2, what is the author's purpose in presenting the information about the decision by Meyer and Mendeleyev to leave gaps in the periodic table?

○To illustrate their confidence that the organizing principles of the periodic table would govern the occurrence of all chemical elements

○To indicate that some of their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties were later found to be wrong

○To support the idea that they were unwilling to place new elements in the periodic table

○To indicate how they handled their disagreement about where to place new elements

4. What reason does the author provide for the claim that Mendeleyev was bolder than Meyer?

○Mendeleyev corrected incorrect information Meyer had proposed.

○Mendeleyev assumed that some information believed to be true about the elements was incorrect.

○Mendeleyev argued that Meyer had not left enough gaps in the periodic table.

○Mendeleyev realized that elements were not ordered by atomic mass in the periodic table.

5. According to paragraph 2, why did Mendeleyev suggest changing the atomic mass of indium?

○Because indium did not fit into the periodic table in the place predicted by its atomic mass.

○Because there was experimental evidence that the atomic mass that had been assigned to indium was incorrect.

○Because there was an empty space between cadmium and tin in the periodic table.

○Because the chemical properties of indium were similar to those of arsenic and selenium.

6. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that tellurium comes before iodine in the periodic table even though tellurium's atomic mass is slightly greater because

○iodine is less common than tellurium

○both iodine and tellurium have no isotopes

○the chemical behavior of tellurium is highly variable

○the atomic number of tellurium is smaller than that of iodine

7. The phrase “abundance” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○weight

○requirement

○plenty

○sequence

Paragraph 3: Mendeleyev went further than Meyer in another respect: he predicted the properties of six elements yet to be discovered. For example, a gap just below aluminum suggested a new element would be found with properties analogous to those of aluminum. Mendeleyev designated this element "eka-aluminum" (eka is the Sanskrit word for "next") and predicted its properties. Just five years later an element with the proper atomic mass was isolated and named gallium by its discoverer. The close correspondence between the observed properties of gallium and Mendeleye Vs predictions for eka-aluminum lent strong support to the periodic law. Additional support came in 1885 when eka-silicon, which had also been described in advance by Mendeleyev, was discovered and named germanium.

8. The phrase “analogous to” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○predicted by

○expected of

○similar to

○superior to

9. Paragraph 3 suggests that Mendeleyev predicted the properties of eka-aluminum on the basis of

○the atomic mass of aluminum

○the position of the gap in the periodic table that eka-aluminum was predicted to fill

○the similarity of eka-aluminum to the other five missing elements

○observation of the properties of gallium

10. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that the significance of the discovery of gallium was that it supported which of the following?

○The idea that aluminum was correctly placed in the periodic table.

○Mendeleyev's prediction that eka-silicon would be discovered next.

○The organizing principle of the periodic table.

○The idea that unknown elements existed.

Paragraph4: The structure of the periodic table appeared to limit the number of possible elements. It was therefore quite surprising when John William Strut (Lord Rayleigh, discovered a gaseous element in 1894 that did not fit into the previous classification scheme. A century earlier, Henry Cavendish had noted the existence of a residual gas when oxygen and nitrogen are removed from air, but its importance had not been realized. Together with William Ramsay, Rayleigh isolated the gas (separating it from other substances into its pure state) and named it argon. Ramsay then studied a gas that was present in natural gas deposits and discovered that it was helium, an element whose presence in the Sun had been noted earlier in the spectrum of sunlight but that had not previously been known on Earth. Rayleigh and Ramsay postulated the existence of a new group of elements, and in 1898 other members of the series (neon, krypton, and xenon) were isolated.

11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○Ramsay found evidence of helium in the spectrum of sunlight before he discovered that the element was also contained in natural gas deposits on Earth.

○Ramsay thought he had discovered a new element present in natural gas deposits, but he was wrong since that element had been previously observed elsewhere on Earth.

○After Ramsay had discovered a new element, called helium, in natural gas deposits on Earth, he also found evidence of its presence in the Sun.

○Ramsay later discovered that helium, an element that was already known to be present in the Sun, was also present in natural gas deposits on Earth.

Paragraph 4: The structure of the periodic table appeared to limit the number of possible elements. It was therefore quite surprising when John William Strut( Lord Rayleigh, discovered a gaseous element in 1894 that did not fit into the previous classification scheme. A century earlier, Henry Cavendish had noted the existence of a residual gas when oxygen and nitrogen are removed from air, but its importance had not been realized. Together with William Ramsay, Rayleigh isolated the gas (separating it from other substances into its pure state) and named it argon. Ramsay then studied a gas that was present in natural gas deposits and discovered that it was helium, an element whose presence in the Sun had been noted earlier in the spectrum of sunlight but that had not previously been known on Earth. Rayleigh and Ramsay postulated the existence of a new group of elements, and in 1898 other members of the series (neon, krypton, and xenon) were isolated.

12. The word “postulated” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○hypothesized

○discovered

○reported

○generated

Paragraph1: The periodic table is a chart that reflects the periodic recurrence of chemical and physical properties of the elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus). It is a monumental scientific achievement, and its development illustrates the essential interplay between observation, prediction, and testing required for scientific progress. In the 1800's scientists were searching for new elements. By the late 1860's more than 60 chemical elements had been identified, and much was known about their descriptive chemistry. Various proposals were put forth to arrange the elements into groups based on similarities in chemical and physical properties. ■The next step was to recognize a connection between group properties (physical or chemical similarities) and atomic mass (the measured mass of an individual atom of an element). ■When the elements known at the time were ordered by increasing atomic mass, it was found that successive elements belonged to different chemical groups and that the order of the groups in this sequence was fixed and repeated itself at regular intervals. ■Thus when the series of elements was written so as to begin a new horizontal row with each alkali metal, elements of the same groups were automatically assembled in vertical columns in a periodic table of the elements. ■This table was the forerunner of the modern table.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

It was a natural Idea to break up the series of elements at the points where the sequence of chemical groups to which the elements belonged began to repeat itself.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The periodic table introduced by Meyer and Mendeleyev was the forerunner of the modern table of elements.

Answer Choices

○ Lord Rayleigh provided evidence that the structure of the I—Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh challenged the importance of the periodic table limited the potential number of elements.

○ Chemical research that Henry Cavendish had done a centuryearlier.

○ Isotopes of a given element have exactly the same physical properties, but their chemical properties are slightly different.

○ Mendeleyev and Meyer organized the known elements into a F chart that revealed periodic recurrences of chemical and physical properties.

○ Mendeleyev's successful prediction of the properties of then- r unknown elements lent support to the acceptance of the periodic law.

○In the 1890's, Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh isolated argon and proposed the existence of a new series of elements.

参考答案:

1. ○4

2. ○3

3. ○1

4. ○2

5. ○1

6. ○4

7. ○3

8.○3

9. ○2

10. ○3

11. ○4

12. ○1

13. ○3

14. ○4, 5,6

Planets in Our Solar System

The Sun is the hub of a huge rotating system consisting of nine planets, their satellites, and numerous small bodies, including asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. An estimated 99.85 percent of the mass of our solar system is contained within the Sun, while the planets collectively make up most of the remaining 0.15 percent. The planets, in order of their distance from the Sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Under the control of the Sun's gravitational force, each planet maintains an elliptical orbit and all of them travel in the same direction.

The planets in our solar system fall into two groups: the terrestrial (Earth-like) planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and the Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). Pluto is not included in either category, because its great distance from Earth and its small size make this planet's true nature a mystery.

The most obvious difference between the terrestrial and the Jovian planets is their size. The largest terrestrial planet, Earth has a diameter only one quarter as great as the diameter of the smallest Jovian planet, Neptune, and its mass is only one seventeenth as great. Hence, the Jovian planets are often called giants. Also, because of their relative locations, the four Jovian planets are known as the outer planets, while the terrestrial planets are known as the inner planets. There appears to be a correlation between the positions of these planets and their sizes.

Other dimensions along which the two groups differ markedly are density and composition. The densities of the terrestrial planets average about 5 times the density of water, whereas the Jovian planets have densities that average only 1.5 times the density of water. One of the outer planets, Saturn, has a density of only 0.7 that of water, which means that Saturn would float in water. Variations in the composition of the planets are largely responsible for the density differences. The substances that make up both groups of planets are divided into three groups—gases, rocks, and ices—based on their melting points. The terrestrial planets are mostly rocks: dense rocky and metallic material, with minor amounts of gases. The Jovian planets, on the other hand, contain a large percentage of the gases hydrogen and helium, with varying amounts of ices: mostly water, ammonia, and methane ices.

The Jovian planets have very thick atmospheres consisting of varying amounts of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia. By comparison, the terrestrial planets have meager atmospheres at best. A planet's ability to retain an atmosphere depends on its temperature and mass. Simply stated, a gas molecule can "evaporate" from a planet if it reaches a speed known as the escape velocity. For Earth, this velocity is 11 kilometers per second. Any material, including a rocket, must reach this speed before it can leave Earth and go into space. The Jovian planets, because of their greater masses and thus higher surface gravities, have higher escape velocities (21-60 kilometers per second) than the terrestrial planets. Consequently, it is more difficult for gases to "evaporate" from them. Also, because the molecular motion of a gas depends on temperature, at the low temperatures of the Jovian planets even the lightest gases are unlikely to acquire the speed needed to escape. On the other hand, a comparatively warm body with a small surface gravity, like Earth's moon, is unable to hold even the heaviest gas and thus lacks an atmosphere. The slightly larger terrestrial planets Earth, Venus, and Mars retain some heavy gases like carbon dioxide, but even their atmospheres make up only an infinitesimally small portion of their total mass.

The orderly nature of our solar system leads most astronomers to conclude that the planets formed at essentially the same time and from the same material as the Sun. It is hypothesized that the primordial cloud of dust and gas from which all the planets are thought to have condensed had a composition somewhat similar to that of Jupiter. However, unlike Jupiter, the terrestrial planets today are nearly void of light gases and ices. The explanation may be that the terrestrial planets were once much larger and richer in these materials but eventually lost them because of these bodies' relative closeness to the Sun, which meant that their temperatures were relatively high.

1. According to the passage, each of the following statements comparing terrestrial planets with Jovian planets is true EXCEPT:

○Terrestrial planets are closer to the Sun than Jovian planets.

○Terrestrial planets have smaller diameters than Jovian planets.

○Terrestrial planets have smaller masses than Jovian planets.

○Terrestrial planets travel in a different direction than Jovian planets do.

Paragraph 4: Other dimensions along which the two groups differ markedly are density and composition. The densities of the terrestrial planets average about 5 times the density of water, whereas the Jovian planets have densities that average only 1.5 times the density of water. One of the outer planets, Saturn, has a density of only 0.7 that of water, which means that Saturn would float in water. Variations in the composition of the planets are largely responsible for the density differences. The substances that make up both groups of planets are divided into three groups—gases, rocks, and ices—based on their melting points. The terrestrial planets are mostly rocks: dense rocky and metallic material, with minor amounts of gases. The Jovian planets, on the other hand, contain a large percentage of the gases hydrogen and helium, with varying amounts of ices: mostly water, ammonia, and methane ices.

2. The word markedly in the passage is closest in meaning to

○Essentially

○Typically

○Consistently

○noticeably

3. Paragraph 4 mentions which of the following as a reason why terrestrial planets are dense?

○They are made up of three groups of substances.

○They are composed mainly of rocky and metallic materials.

○They contain more ice than Jovian planets.

○They contain relatively small amounts of water.

4. Paragraph 4 supports each of the following statements about Saturn EXCEPT:

○It is less dense than any of the terrestrial planets.

○It contains no rocky material.

○It contains ices.

○It contains a large percentage of gases.

Paragraph 5: The Jovian planets have very thick atmospheres consisting of varying amounts of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia. By comparison, the terrestrial planets have meager atmospheres at best. A planet's ability to retain an atmosphere depends on its temperature and mass. Simply stated, a gas molecule can "evaporate" from a planet if it reaches a speed known as the escape velocity. For Earth, this velocity is 11 kilometers per second. Any material, including a rocket, must reach this speed before it can leave Earth and go into space. The Jovian planets, because of their greater masses and thus higher surface gravities, have higher escape velocities (21-60 kilometers per second) than the terrestrial planets. Consequently, it is more difficult for gases to "evaporate" from them. Also, because the molecular motion of a gas depends on temperature, at the low temperatures of the Jovian planets even the lightest gases are unlikely to acquire the speed needed to escape. On the other hand, a comparatively warm body with a small surface gravity, like Earth's moon, is unable to hold even the heaviest gas and thus lacks an atmosphere. The slightly larger terrestrial planets Earth, Venus, and Mars retain some heavy gases like carbon dioxide, but even their atmospheres make up only an infinitesimally small portion of their total mass.

5. The word meager in the passage is closest in meaning to

○rich

○thin

○unique

○complex

6. According to paragraph 5, which of the following statements is true of both Jovian and terrestrial planets?

○ The thicker the atmosphere, the smaller the planet’s mass

○ The more varied the gases in the atmosphere, the higher the temperature

○ The higher the surface gravity, the higher the escape velocity

○ The less the atmosphere contributes to the total mass, the lower the temperature

7. According to paragraph 5, what is a major reason that Jovian planets have much thicker atmospheres than terrestrial planets do?

○ Jovian planets have lower surface gravities

○ Jovian planets have lower temperatures

○ Jovian planets have lower escape velocities

○Jovian planets’ gas molecules have higher average speeds

8. Paragraph 5 supports which of the following statements about the ability of planets to retain gases?

○More-massive planets are less able to retain gases than less-massive ones.

○Planets are more likely to retain heavy gases than light gases.

○Jovian planets are unlikely to retain the lightest gases.

○Only terrestrial planets have been able to retain carbon dioxide.

Paragraph 6: The orderly nature of our solar system leads most astronomers to conclude that the planets formed at essentially the same time and from the same material as the Sun. It is hypothesized that the primordial cloud of dust and gas from which all the planets are thought to have condensed had a composition somewhat similar to that of Jupiter. However, unlike Jupiter, the terrestrial planets today are nearly void of light gases and ices. The explanation may be that the terrestrial planets were once much larger and richer in these materials but eventually lost them because of these bodies' relative closeness to the Sun, which meant that their temperatures were relatively high.

9. In calling the cloud of gas and dust from which the Sun and all the planets are thought to have condensed "primordial,' the author means that the cloud was

○immense in size

○composed of similar particles

○present at the very beginning of our solar system's formation

○created from a great variety of different materials

10. The word eventually in the passage is closest in meaning to

○over time

○long ago

○simply

○certainly

11. According to paragraph 6, what is a possible explanation for the lack of light gases and ices on terrestrial planets?

○The location of terrestrial planets caused them to lose some of the materials they once contained.

○Terrestrial planets were formed much later than Jovian planets.

○The composition of terrestrial planets was different from that of Jupiter.

○Terrestrial planets were formed out of different material than the Sun was.

Paragraph 4: Other dimensions along which the two groups differ markedly are density and composition. The densities of the terrestrial planets average about 5 times the density of water, whereas the Jovian planets have densities that average only 1.5 times the density of water. One of the outer planets, Saturn, has a density of only 0.7 that of water, which means that Saturn would float in water. Variations in the composition of the planets are largely responsible for the density differences. ■The substances that make up both groups of planets are divided into three groups—gases, rocks, and ices—based on their melting points. ■The terrestrial planets are mostly rocks: dense rocky and metallic material, with minor amounts of gases. ■The Jovian planets, on the other hand, contain a large percentage of the gases hydrogen and helium, with varying amounts of ices: mostly water, ammonia, and methane ices. ■

12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

This explains their relatively low densities.

Where would the sentence best fit?

10. Directions: From the seven answer choices below, select the two phrases that correctly characterize the terrestrial planets and the three phrases that correctly characterize the Jovian planets. Drag each phrase you select into the appropriate column of the table. Two of the phrases will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.

terrestrial planetsJovian planets

●●

Answer Choices

1. Have relatively small sizes

2. Are grouped in the same category as Pluto

3. Contain relatively high proportions of ices

4. Have relatively high temperatures

5. Have densities that are generally lower than the density of water

6. Have relatively high escape velocities

7. Have a composition closer to that of the cloud from which they condensed terrestrial

参考答案:

1. ○4

2. ○4

3. ○2

4. ○2

5. ○2

6. ○3

7. ○2

8.○2

9. ○3

10. ○1

11. ○1

12. ○4

13. ○1,4 ○3, 6,7

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