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托福TPO13阅读原文

2015年07月13日 11:18来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:

上海新航道托福频道整理发布托福TPO13阅读原文,希望帮助考生对照文本更好的研究真题,充分备考,争取理想成绩,实现留学梦想。

Types of Social Groups

Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction. Moreover, our humanness must be sustained through social interaction—and fairly constantly so. When an association continues long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations, it is called a relationship.

People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions.

A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.

Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society's cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.

Second, primary groups are fundamental because they provide the settings in which we meet most of our personal needs. Within them, we experience companionship, love, security, and an overall sense of well-being. Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group's primary ties has implications for the group's functioning. For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is.

Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group's norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from our behavior that conforms to group-devised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and as enforcers of them.

Paragraph 1: Life places us in a complex web of relationships with other people. Our humanness arises out of these relationships in the course of social interaction. Moreover, our humanness must be sustained through social interaction—and fairly constantly so. When an association continues long enough for two people to become linked together by a relatively stable set of expectations, it is called a relationship.

1. The word “complex” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ delicate

○ elaborate

○ private

○ common

2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of a relationship?

○ It is a structure of associations with many people.

○ It should be studied in the course of a social interaction.

○ It places great demands on people.

○ It develops gradually overtime.

Paragraph 2: People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance.

3. The word endowing in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ leaving

○ exposing

○ providing

○ understanding

4. Which of the following can be inferred about instrumental ties from the author's mention of working with competitors in paragraph 2?

○ Instrumental ties can develop even in situations in which people would normally not cooperate.

○ Instrumental ties require as much emotional investment as expressive ties.

○ Instrumental ties involve security, love, and acceptance.

○ Instrumental ties should be expected to be significant.

Paragraph 3: Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions.

5. According to paragraph 3, what do sociologists see as the main difference between primary and secondary groups?

○ Primary groups consist of people working together, while secondary groups exist outside of work settings.

○ In primary groups people are seen as means, while in secondary groups people are seen as ends.

○ Primary groups involve personal relationships, while secondary groups are mainly practical in purpose.

○ Primary groups are generally small, while secondary groups often contain more than two people.

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's claim in paragraph 3 that primary group relationships sometimes evolve out of secondary group relationships?

○ Secondary group relationships begin by being primary group relationships.

○ A secondary group relationship that is highly visible quickly becomes a primary group relationship.

○ Sociologists believe that only primary group relationships are important to society.

○ Even in secondary groups, frequent communication serves to bring people into close relationships.

Paragraph 4: A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.

7. The phrase “size up” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ enlarge

○ evaluate

○ impress

○ accept

Paragraph 5: Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society's cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○ Sociologists think that cultural patterns establish connections between the individual and the larger society.

○ Sociologists believe that individuals with a sense of oneness bridge the gap between society and primary groups.

○ Sociologists think primary groups contribute to social solidarity because they help maintain a society's cultural patterns.

○ Sociologists believe that the cultural patterns that provide social solidarity arise as bridges from primary groups.

9. This passage is developed primarily by

○drawing comparisons between theory and practice

○presenting two opposing theories

○defining important concepts and providing examples of them

○discussing causes and their effects

Paragraph 7: Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group's norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from our behavior that conforms to group-devised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and as enforcers of them.

10. The word “deviate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ detract

○ advance

○ select

○ depart

11. According to paragraph 7, why would a social group use shunning?

○ To enforce practice of the kinds of behavior acceptable to the group

○ To discourage offending individuals from remaining in the group

○ To commend and reward the behavior of the other members of the group

○ To decide which behavioral norms should be passed on to the next generation

Paragraph 6: Second, primary groups are fundamental because they provide the settings in which we meet most of our personal needs. ■Within them, we experience companionship, love, security, and an overall sense of well-being. ■Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group's primary ties has implications for the group's functioning. ■For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is. ■

12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

People who do not live alone, for example, tend to make healthier life choices and develop fewer pathologies than people who live by themselves.

Where would the sentence best fit?

13. Directions: Complete the table below by selecting three answer choices that are characteristics of primary groups and two answer choices that are characteristics of secondary groups. This question is worth 3 points.

Primary Groups

Secondary Groups

Answer Choices

○ Developing socially acceptable behavior

○ Working together against competitors

○ Experiencing pressure from outside forces

○ Viewing people as a means to an end

○ Existing for practical purposes

○ Providing meaning for life situations

○ Involving close relationships

参考答案:

1. ○2

2. ○4

3. ○3

4. ○1

5. ○3

6. ○4

7. ○2

8.○3

9. ○3

10. ○4

11. ○1

12. ○2

13.○Primary Groups: Developing socially acceptable behavior;

Providing meaning for life situations;

Involving close relationships

○Secondary Groups: Viewing people as a means to an end;

Existing for practical purposes

Biological Clocks

Survival and successful reproduction usually require the activities of animals to be coordinated with predictable events around them. Consequently, the timing and rhythms of biological functions must closely match periodic events like the solar day, the tides, the lunar cycle, and the seasons. The relations between animal activity and these periods, particularly for the daily rhythms, have been of such interest and importance that a huge amount of work has been done on them and the special research field of chronobiology has emerged. Normally, the constantly changing levels of an animal's activity—sleeping, feeding, moving, reproducing, metabolizing, and producing enzymes and hormones, for example—are well coordinated with environmental rhythms, but the key question is whether the animal's schedule is driven by external cues, such as sunrise or sunset, or is instead dependent somehow on internal timers that themselves generate the observed biological rhythms. Almost universally, biologists accept the idea that all eukaryotes (a category that includes most organisms except bacteria and certain algae) have internal clocks. By isolating organisms completely from external periodic cues, biologists learned that organisms have internal clocks. For instance, apparently normal daily periods of biological activity were maintained for about a week by the fungus Neurospora when it was intentionally isolated from all geophysical timing cues while orbiting in a space shuttle. The continuation of biological rhythms in an organism without external cues attests to its having an internal clock.

When crayfish are kept continuously in the dark, even for four to five months, their compound eyes continue to adjust on a daily schedule for daytime and nighttime vision. Horseshoe crabs kept in the dark continuously for a year were found to maintain a persistent rhythm of brain activity that similarly adapts their eyes on a daily schedule for bright or for weak light. Like almost all daily cycles of animals deprived of environmental cues, those measured for the horseshoe crabs in these conditions were not exactly 24 hours. Such a rhythm whose period is approximately—but not exactly—a day is called circadian. For different individual horseshoe crabs, the circadian period ranged from 22.2 to 25.5 hours. A particular animal typically maintains its own characteristic cycle duration with great precision for many days. Indeed, stability of the biological clock's period is one of its major features, even when the organism's environment is subjected to considerable changes in factors, such as temperature, that would be expected to affect biological activity strongly. Further evidence for persistent internal rhythms appears when the usual external cycles are shifted—either experimentally or by rapid east-west travel over great distances. Typically, the animal's daily internally generated cycle of activity continues without change. As a result, its activities are shifted relative to the external cycle of the new environment. The disorienting effects of this mismatch between external time cues and internal schedules may persist, like our jet lag, for several days or weeks until certain cues such as the daylight/darkness cycle reset the organism's clock to synchronize with the daily rhythm of the new environment.

Animals need natural periodic signals like sunrise to maintain a cycle whose period is precisely 24 hours. Such an external cue not only coordinates an animal's daily rhythms with particular features of the local solar day but also—because it normally does so day after day-seems to keep the internal clock's period close to that of Earth's rotation. Yet despite this synchronization of the period of the internal cycle, the animal's timer itself continues to have its own genetically built-in period close to, but different from, 24 hours. Without the external cue, the difference accumulates and so the internally regulated activities of the biological day drift continuously, like the tides, in relation to the solar day. This drift has been studied extensively in many animals and in biological activities ranging from the hatching of fruit fly eggs to wheel running by squirrels. Light has a predominating influence in setting the clock. Even a fifteen-minute burst of light in otherwise sustained darkness can reset an animal's circadian rhythm. Normally, internal rhythms are kept in step by regular environmental cycles. For instance, if a homing pigeon is to navigate with its Sun compass, its clock must be properly set by cues provided by the daylight/darkness cycle.

Paragraph 1: Survival and successful reproduction usually require the activities of animals to be coordinated with predictable events around them. Consequently, the timing and rhythms of biological functions must closely match periodic events like the solar day, the tides, the lunar cycle, and the seasons. The relations between animal activity and these periods, particularly for the daily rhythms, have been of such interest and importance that a huge amount of work has been done on them and the special research field of chronobiology has emerged. Normally, the constantly changing levels of an animal's activity—sleeping, feeding, moving, reproducing, metabolizing, and producing enzymes and hormones, for example—are well coordinated with environmental rhythms, but the key question is whether the animal's schedule is driven by external cues, such as sunrise or sunset, or is instead dependent somehow on internal timers that themselves generate the observed biological rhythms. Almost universally, biologists accept the idea that all eukaryotes (a category that includes most organisms except bacteria and certain algae) have internal clocks. By isolating organisms completely from external periodic cues, biologists learned that organisms have internal clocks. For instance, apparently normal daily periods of biological activity were maintained for about a week by the fungus Neurospora when it was intentionally isolated from all geophysical timing cues while orbiting in a space shuttle. The continuation of biological rhythms in an organism without external cues attests to its having an internal clock.

1. The word “Consequently” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○Therefore

○Additionally

○Nevertheless

○Moreover

2. In paragraph 1, the experiment on the fungus Neurospora is mentioned to illustrate

○the existence of weekly periods of activity as well as daily ones

○the finding of evidence that organisms have internal clocks

○the effect of space on the internal clocks of organisms

○the isolation of one part of an organism's cycle for study

3. According to paragraph 1, all the following are generally assumed to be true EXCEPT:

○It is important for animals' daily activities to be coordinated with recurring events in their environment.

○Eukaryotes have internal clocks.

○The relationship between biological function and environmental cycles is a topic of intense research.

○Animals' daily rhythms are more dependent on external cues than on internal clocks.

Paragraph 2: When crayfish are kept continuously in the dark, even for four to five months, their compound eyes continue to adjust on a daily schedule for daytime and nighttime vision. Horseshoe crabs kept in the dark continuously for a year were found to maintain a persistent rhythm of brain activity that similarly adapts their eyes on a daily schedule for bright or for weak light. Like almost all daily cycles of animals deprived of environmental cues, those measured for the horseshoe crabs in these conditions were not exactly 24 hours. Such a rhythm whose period is approximately—but not exactly—a day is called circadian. For different individual horseshoe crabs, the circadian period ranged from 22.2 to 25.5 hours. A particular animal typically maintains its own characteristic cycle duration with great precision for many days. Indeed, stability of the biological clock's period is one of its major features, even when the organism's environment is subjected to considerable changes in factors, such as temperature, that would be expected to affect biological activity strongly. Further evidence for persistent internal rhythms appears when the usual external cycles are shifted—either experimentally or by rapid east-west travel over great distances. Typically, the animal's daily internally generated cycle of activity continues without change. As a result, its activities are shifted relative to the external cycle of the new environment. The disorienting effects of this mismatch between external time cues and internal schedules may persist, like our jet lag, for several days or weeks until certain cues such as the daylight/darkness cycle reset the organism's clock to synchronize with the daily rhythm of the new environment.

4. The word “persistent” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○adjusted

○strong

○enduring

○predicted

5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○Stability, a feature of the biological clock's period, depends on changeable factors such as temperature.

○A major feature of the biological clock is that its period does not change despite significant changes in the environment.

○A factor such as temperature is an important feature in the establishment of the biological clock's period.

○Biological activity is not strongly affected by changes in temperature.

6. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about the circadian periods of animals deprived of environmental cues?

○They have the same length as the daily activity cycles of animals that are not deprived of such cues.

○They can vary significantly from day to day.

○They are not the same for all members of a single species.

○They become longer over time.

7. According to paragraph 2, what will an animal experience when its internal rhythms no longer correspond with the daily cycle of the environment?

○Disorientation

○Change in period of the internal rhythms

○Reversal of day and night activities increased

○Sensitivity to environmental factors

8. In paragraph 2, the author provides evidence for the role of biological clocks by

○listing the daily activities of an animal's cycle: sleeping, feeding, moving, reproducing, metabolizing, and producing enzymes and hormones

○describing the process of establishing the period of a biological clock

○presenting cases in which an animal's daily schedule remained stable despite lack of environmental cues

○contrasting animals whose daily schedules fluctuate with those of animals whose schedules are constant

9. The word duration in the passage is closest in meaning to

○length

○feature

○process

○repetition

10. In paragraph 2, why does the author mention that the period for different horseshoe crabs ranges from 22.2 to 25.5 hours?

○To illustrate that an animal's internal clock seldom has a 24-hour cycle

○To argue that different horseshoe crabs will shift from daytime to nighttime vision at different times

○To illustrate the approximate range of the circadian rhythm of all animals

○To support the idea that external cues are the only factors affecting an animal's periodic behavior

Paragraph 3: Animals need natural periodic signals like sunrise to maintain a cycle whose period is precisely 24 hours. Such an external cue not only coordinates an animal's daily rhythms with particular features of the local solar day but also—because it normally does so day after day-seems to keep the internal clock's period close to that of Earth's rotation. Yet despite this synchronization of the period of the internal cycle, the animal's timer itself continues to have its own genetically built-in period close to, but different from, 24 hours. Without the external cue, the difference accumulates and so the internally regulated activities of the biological day drift continuously, like the tides, in relation to the solar day. This drift has been studied extensively in many animals and in biological activities ranging from the hatching of fruit fly eggs to wheel running by squirrels. Light has a predominating influence in setting the clock. Even a fifteen-minute burst of light in otherwise sustained darkness can reset an animal's circadian rhythm. Normally, internal rhythms are kept in step by regular environmental cycles. For instance, if a homing pigeon is to navigate with its Sun compass, its clock must be properly set by cues provided by the daylight/darkness cycle.

11. The word “it” in the passage refers to

○ an external cue such as sunrise

○ the daily rhythm of an animal

○ the local solar day

○ a cycle whose period is precisely 24 hours

12. The word “sustained” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○ intense

○ uninterrupted

○ natural

○ periodic

Paragraph 3: Animals need natural periodic signals like sunrise to maintain a cycle whose period is precisely 24 hours. ■Such an external cue not only coordinates an animal's daily rhythms with particular features of the local solar day but also—because it normally does so day after day-seems to keep the internal clock's period close to that of Earth's rotation. ■Yet despite this synchronization of the period of the internal cycle, the animal's timer itself continues to have its own genetically built-in period close to, but different from, 24 hours. ■Without the external cue, the difference accumulates and so the internally regulated activities of the biological day drift continuously, like the tides, in relation to the solar day. ■This drift has been studied extensively in many animals and in biological activities ranging from the hatching of fruit fly eggs to wheel running by squirrels. Light has a predominating influence in setting the clock. Even a fifteen-minute burst of light in otherwise sustained darkness can reset an animal's circadian rhythm. Normally, internal rhythms are kept in step by regular environmental cycles. For instance, if a homing pigeon is to navigate with its Sun compass, its clock must be properly set by cues provided by the daylight/darkness cycle.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Because the internal signals that regulate waking and going to sleep tend to align themselves with these external cues, the external clock appears to dominate the internal clock.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The activity of animals is usually coordinated with periodically recurring events in the environment.

Answer Choices

○Most animals survive and reproduce successfully without coordinating their activities to external environmental rhythms.

○The circadian period of an animal's internal clock is genetically determined and basically unchangeable.

○Environmental cues such as a change in temperature are enough to reset an animal's clock.

○Animals have internal clocks that influence their activities even when environmental cues are absent.

○Animals are less affected by large differences between their internal rhythms and the local solar day than are humans.

○Because an animal's internal clock does not operate on a 24-hour cycle, environmental stimuli are needed to keep the biological day aligned with the solar day.

参考答案:

1. ○1

2. ○2

3. ○4

4. ○3

5. ○2

6. ○3

7. ○1

8.○3

9. ○1

10. ○1

11. ○1

12. ○2

13. ○2

14. The circadian period…

Animals have internal…

Because an animal's…

Methods of Studying Infant Perception

In the study of perceptual abilities of infants, a number of techniques are used to determine infants' responses to various stimuli. Because they cannot verbalize or fill out questionnaires, indirect techniques of naturalistic observation are used as the primary means of determining what infants can see, hear, feel, and so forth. Each of these methods compares an infant's state prior to the introduction of a stimulus with its state during or immediately following the stimulus. The difference between the two measures provides the researcher with an indication of the level and duration of the response to the stimulus. For example, if a uniformly moving pattern of some sort is passed across the visual field of a neonate (newborn), repetitive following movements of the eye occur. The occurrence of these eye movements provides evidence that the moving pattern is perceived at some level by the newborn. Similarly, changes in the infant's general level of motor activity —turning the head, blinking the eyes, crying, and so forth — have been used by researchers as visual indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities.

Such techniques, however, have limitations. First, the observation may be unreliable in that two or more observers may not agree that the particular response occurred, or to what degree it occurred. Second, responses are difficult to quantify. Often the rapid and diffuse movements of the infant make it difficult to get an accurate record of the number of responses. The third, and most potent, limitation is that it is not possible to be certain that the infant's response was due to the stimulus presented or to a change from no stimulus to a stimulus. The infant may be responding to aspects of the stimulus different than those identified by the investigator. Therefore, when observational assessment is used as a technique for studying infant perceptual abilities, care must be taken not to overgeneralize from the data or to rely on one or two studies as conclusive evidence of a particular perceptual ability of the infant.

Observational assessment techniques have become much more sophisticated, reducing the limitations just presented. Film analysis of the infant's responses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and nonnutritive sucking devices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. Film analysis permits researchers to carefully study the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. Precise measurements can be made of the length and frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. Heart and respiration monitors provide the investigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulus is presented. Numerical increases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the new stimulus. Increases in nonnutritive sucking were first used as an assessment measure by researchers in 1969. They devised an apparatus that connected a baby's pacifier to a counting device. As stimuli were presented, changes in the infant's sucking behavior were recorded. Increases in the number of sucks were used as an indicator of the infant's attention to or preference for a given visual display.

Two additional techniques of studying infant perception have come into vogue. The first is the habituation-dishabituation technique, in which a single stimulus is presented repeatedly to the infant until there is a measurable decline (habituation) in whatever attending behavior is being observed. At that point a new stimulus is presented, and any recovery (dishabituation) in responsiveness is recorded. If the infant fails to dishabituate and continues to show habituation with the new stimulus, it is assumed that the baby is unable to perceive the new stimulus as different. The habituation-dishabituation paradigm has been used most extensively with studies of auditory and olfactory perception in infants. The second technique relies on evoked potentials, which are electrical brain responses that may be related to a particular stimulus because of where they originate. Changes in the electrical pattern of the brain indicate that the stimulus is getting through to the infant's central nervous system and eliciting some form of response.

Each of the preceding techniques provides the researcher with evidence that the infant can detect or discriminate between stimuli. With these sophisticated observational assessment and electro-physiological measures, we know that the neonate of only a few days is far more perceptive than previously suspected. However, these measures are only "indirect" indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities.

Paragraph 1: In the study of perceptual abilities of infants, a number of techniques are used to determine infants' responses to various stimuli. Because they cannot verbalize or fill out questionnaires, indirect techniques of naturalistic observation are used as the primary means of determining what infants can see, hear, feel, and so forth. Each of these methods compares an infant's state prior to the introduction of a stimulus with its state during or immediately following the stimulus. The difference between the two measures provides the researcher with an indication of the level and duration of the response to the stimulus. For example, if a uniformly moving pattern of some sort is passed across the visual field of a neonate (newborn), repetitive following movements of the eye occur. The occurrence of these eye movements provides evidence that the moving pattern is perceived at some level by the newborn. Similarly, changes in the infant's general level of motor activity —turning the head, blinking the eyes, crying, and so forth — have been used by researchers as visual indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities.

1. Paragraph 1 indicates that researchers use indirect methods primarily to observe the

○range of motor activity in neonates

○frequency and duration of various stimuli

○change in an infant's state following the introduction of a stimulus

○range of an infant's visual field

2. The word uniformly in the passage is closest in meaning to

○clearly

○quickly

○consistently

○occasionally

3. Why does the author mention repetitive following movements of the eye?

○To identify a response that indicates a neonate's perception of a stimulus

○To explain why a neonate is capable of responding to stimuli only through repetitive movements

○To argue that motor activity in a neonate may be random and unrelated to stimuli

○To emphasize that responses to stimuli vary in infants according to age

Paragraph 2: Such techniques, however, have limitations. First, the observation may be unreliable in that two or more observers may not agree that the particular response occurred, or to what degree it occurred. Second, responses are difficult to quantify. Often the rapid and diffuse movements of the infant make it difficult to get an accurate record of the number of responses. The third, and most potent, limitation is that it is not possible to be certain that the infant's response was due to the stimulus presented or to a change from no stimulus to a stimulus. The infant may be responding to aspects of the stimulus different than those identified by the investigator. Therefore, when observational assessment is used as a technique for studying infant perceptual abilities, care must be taken not to overgeneralize from the data or to rely on one or two studies as conclusive evidence of a particular perceptual ability of the infant.

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as a problem in using the technique of direct observation?

○It is impossible to be certain of the actual cause of an infant's response.

○Infants' responses, which occur quickly and diffusely, are often difficult to measure.

○Infants do not respond well to stimuli presented in an unnatural laboratory setting.

○It may be difficult for observers to agree on the presence or the degree of a response.

5. The word potent in the passage is closest in meaning to

○artificial

○powerful

○common

○similar

6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○Researchers using observational assessment techniques on infants must not overgeneralize and must base their conclusions on data from many studies.

○On the basis of the data from one or two studies, it seems that some infants develop a particular perceptual ability not observed in others.

○To use data from one or two studies on infant's perceptual abilities, it is necessary to use techniques that will provide conclusive evidence.

○When researchers fail to make generalizations from their studies, their observed data is often inconclusive.

Paragraph 3: Observational assessment techniques have become much more sophisticated, reducing the limitations just presented. Film analysis of the infant's responses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and nonnutritive sucking devices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. Film analysis permits researchers to carefully study the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. Precise measurements can be made of the length and frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. Heart and respiration monitors provide the investigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulus is presented. Numerical increases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the new stimulus. Increases in nonnutritive sucking were first used as an assessment measure by researchers in 1969. They devised an apparatus that connected a baby's pacifier to a counting device. As stimuli were presented, changes in the infant's sucking behavior were recorded. Increases in the number of sucks were used as an indicator of the infant's attention to or preference for a given visual display.

7. What is the author's primary purpose in paragraph 3?

○To explain why researchers must conduct more than one type of study when they are attempting to understand infant perception

○To describe new techniques for observing infant perception that overcome problems identified in the previous paragraph

○To present and evaluate the conclusions of various studies on infant perception

○To point out the strengths and weaknesses of three new methods for quantifying an infant's reaction to stimuli

8. The word quantifiable in the passage is closest in meaning to

○visual

○permanent

○meaningful

○measurable

9. Paragraph 3 mentions all of the following as indications of an infant's heightened interest in a new stimulus EXCEPT an increase in

○sucking behavior

○heart rate

○the number of breaths taken

○eye movements

Paragraph 4: Two additional techniques of studying infant perception have come into vogue. The first is the habituation-dishabituation technique, in which a single stimulus is presented repeatedly to the infant until there is a measurable decline (habituation) in whatever attending behavior is being observed. At that point a new stimulus is presented, and any recovery (dishabituation) in responsiveness is recorded. If the infant fails to dishabituate and continues to show habituation with the new stimulus, it is assumed that the baby is unable to perceive the new stimulus as different. The habituation-dishabituation paradigm has been used most extensively with studies of auditory and olfactory perception in infants. The second technique relies on evoked potentials, which are electrical brain responses that may be related to a particular stimulus because of where they originate. Changes in the electrical pattern of the brain indicate that the stimulus is getting through to the infant's central nervous system and eliciting some form of response.

10. According to paragraph 4, which of the following leads to the conclusion that infants are able to differentiate between stimuli in a habituation-dishabituation study?

○Dishabituation occurs with the introduction of a new stimulus.

○Electrical responses in the infant's brain decline with each new stimulus.

○Habituation is continued with the introduction of a new stimulus.

○The infant displays little change in electrical brain responses.

11. In paragraph 4, what does the author suggest about the way an infant's brain perceives stimuli?

○An infant's potential to respond to a stimulus may be related to the size of its brain.

○Changes in the electrical patterns of an infant's brain are difficult to detect.

○Different areas of an infant's brain respond to different types of stimuli.

○An infant is unable to perceive more than one stimulus at a time.

Paragraph 5: Each of the preceding techniques provides the researcher with evidence that the infant can detect or discriminate between stimuli. With these sophisticated observational assessment and electro-physiological measures, we know that the neonate of only a few days is far more perceptive than previously suspected. However, these measures are only "indirect" indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities.

12. Paragraph 5 indicates that researchers who used the techniques described in the passage discovered that

○infants find it difficult to perceive some types of stimuli

○neonates of only a few days cannot yet discriminate between stimuli

○observational assessment is less useful for studying infant perception than researchers previously believed

○a neonate is able to perceive stimuli better than researchers once thought

Paragraph 3: Observational assessment techniques have become much more sophisticated, reducing the limitations just presented. Film analysis of the infant's responses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and nonnutritive sucking devices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. ■Film analysis permits researchers to carefully study the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. ■Precise measurements can be made of the length and frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. ■Heart and respiration monitors provide the investigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulus is presented. ■Numerical increases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the new stimulus. Increases in nonnutritive sucking were first used as an assessment measure by researchers in 1969. They devised an apparatus that connected a baby's pacifier to a counting device. As stimuli were presented, changes in the infant's sucking behavior were recorded. Increases in the number of sucks were used as an indicator of the infant's attention to or preference for a given visual display.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

The repetition allows researchers to observe the infant's behavior until they reach agreement about the presence and the degree of the infant's response.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Researchers use a number of techniques to determine how infants respond to changes in their environment

Answer choices

○Data from observational methods must be confirmed through multiple studies.

○New techniques for studying infant perception have improved the accuracy with which researchers observe and quantify infant responses

○Indirect observation is most accurate when researchers use it to test auditory and olfactory perception in neonates.

○Visual indicators such as turning the head, blinking the eyes, or crying remain the best evidence of an infant’s perceptual abilities.

○Pacifiers are commonly used in studies to calm an infant who has been presented with excessive stimuli.

○Sophisticated techniques that have aided new discoveries about perception in the neonate continue to be indirect measures.

参考答案:

1. ○3

2. ○3

3. ○1

4. ○3

5. ○2

6. ○1

7. ○2

8.○4

9. ○4

10. ○1

11. ○3

12. ○4

13. ○2

14. Data from observational…

New techniques for…

Sophisticated techniques that…

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