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托福TPO阅读原文9

2015年06月29日 10:59来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

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托福TPO阅读原文9

Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast

It has long been accepted that the Americas were colonized by a migration of peoples from Asia, slowly traveling across a land bridge called Beringia (now the Bering Strait between northeastern Asia and Alaska) during the last Ice Age. The first water craft theory about this migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers. It was this midcontinental corridor between two massive ice sheets–the Laurentide to the east and the Cordilleran to the west–that enabled the southward migration. But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect. He persuasively argued that such an ice-free corridor did not exist until much later, when the continental ice began its final retreat.

Support is growing for the alternative theory that people using watercraft, possibly skin boats, moved southward from Beringia along the Gulf of Alaska and then southward along the Northwest coast of North America possibly as early as 16,000 years ago. This route would have enabled humans to enter southern areas of the Americas prior to the melting of the continental glaciers. Until the early 1970s,most archaeologists did not consider the coast a possible migration route into the Americas because geologists originally believed that during the last Ice Age the entire Northwest Coast was covered by glacial ice. It had been assumed that the ice extended westward from the Alaskan/Canadian mountains to the very edge of the continental shelf, the flat, submerged part of the continent that extends into the ocean. This would have created a barrier of ice extending from the Alaska Peninsula, through the Gulf of Alaska and southward along the Northwest Coast of north America to what is today the state of Washington.

The most influential proponent of the coastal migration route has been Canadian archaeologist Knut Fladmark. He theorized that with the use of watercraft, people gradually colonized unglaciated refuges and areas along the continental shelf exposed by the lower sea level. Fladmark’s hypothesis received additional support form from the fact that the greatest diversity in native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americas, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest.

More recent geologic studies documented deglaciation and the existence of ice-free areas throughout major coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada, by 13,000 years ago. Research now indicates that sizable areas of southeastern Alaska along the inner continental shelf were not covered by ice toward the end of the last Ice Age. One study suggests that except for a 250-mile coastal area between southwestern British Columbia and Washington State, the Northwest Coast of North America was largely free of ice by approximately 16,000 years ago. Vast areas along the coast may have been deglaciated beginning around 16,000 years ago, possibly providing a coastal corridor for the movement of plants, animals, and humans sometime between 13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the time period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supporting breeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to support humans. Fladmark and other believe that the first human colonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the very late Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologic evidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-free regions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea level between13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

The coastal hypothesis suggests an economy based on marine mammal hunting, saltwater fishing, shellfish gathering, and the use of watercraft. Because of the barrier of ice to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and populated areas to the north, there may have been a greater impetus for people to move in a southerly direction.

Paragraph 1: It has long been accepted that the Americas were colonized by a migration of peoples from Asia, slowly traveling across a land bridge called Beringia (now the Bering Strait between northeastern Asia and Alaska) during the last Ice Age. The first water craft theory about this migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers. It was this midcontinental corridor between two massive ice sheets–the Laurentide to the east and the Cordilleran to the west–that enabled the southward migration. But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect. He persuasively argued that such an ice-free corridor did not exist until much later, when the continental ice began its final retreat.

1. According to paragraph 1, the theory that people first migrated to the Americans by way of an ice-free corridor was seriously called into question by

○paleoecologist Glen MacDonald's argument that the original migration occurred much later than had previously been believed

○the demonstration that certain previously accepted radiocarbon dates were incorrect

○evidence that the continental ice began its final retreat much later than had previously been believed

○research showing that the ice-free corridor was not as long lasting as had been widely assumed

2. The word “persuasively” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○aggressively

○inflexibly

○convincingly

○carefully

Paragraph 2: Support is growing for the alternative theory that people using watercraft, possibly skin boats, moved southward from Beringia along the Gulf of Alaska and then southward along the Northwest coast of North America possibly as early as 16,000 years ago. This route would have enabled humans to enter southern areas of the Americas prior to the melting of the continental glaciers. Until the early 1970s,most archaeologists did not consider the coast a possible migration route into the Americas because geologists originally believed that during the last Ice Age the entire Northwest Coast was covered by glacial ice. It had been assumed that the ice extended westward from the Alaskan/Canadian mountains to the very edge of the continental shelf, the flat, submerged part of the continent that extends into the ocean. This would have created a barrier of ice extending from the Alaska Peninsula, through the Gulf of Alaska and southward along the Northwest Coast of north America to what is today the state of Washington.

3. Paragraph 2 begins by presenting a theory and then goes on to

○discuss why the theory was rapidly accepted but then rejected

○present the evidence on which the theory was based

○cite evidence that now shows that the theory is incorrect

○explain why the theory was not initially considered plausible

4. The phrase “prior to” is closest in meaning to

○before

○immediately after

○during

○in spite of

5. Paragraph 2 supports the idea that, before the 1970s, most archaeologists held which of the following views about the earliest people to reach the Americas?

○They could not have sailed directly from Beringia to Alaska and then southward because, it was thought, glacial ice covered the entire coastal region.

○They were not aware that the climate would continue to become milder.

○They would have had no interest in migrating southward from Beringia until after the continental glaciers had begun to melt.

○They lacked the navigational skills and appropriate boats needed long-distance trips.

Paragraph 3: The most influential proponent of the coastal migration route has been Canadian archaeologist Knut Fladmark. He theorized that with the use of watercraft, people gradually colonized unglaciated refuges and areas along the continental shelf exposed by the lower sea level. Fladmark’s hypothesis received additional support form from the fact that the greatest diversity in native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americas, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest.

6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways to leave out essential information.

○Because this region has been settled the longest, it also displays the greatest diversity in Native American languages.

○Fladmark's hypothesis states that the west coast of the Americas has been settled longer than any other region.

○The fact that the greatest diversity of Native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americans lends strength to Fradmark's hypothesis.

○According to Fladmark, Native American languages have survived the longest along the west coast of the Americas.

Paragraph 4: More recent geologic studies documented deglaciation and the existence of ice-free areas throughout major coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada, by 13,000 years ago. Research now indicates that sizable areas of southeastern Alaska along the inner continental shelf were not covered by ice toward the end of the last Ice Age.来源:北京新航道托福培训 One study suggests that except for a 250-mile coastal area between southwestern British Columbia and Washington State, the Northwest Coast of North America was largely free of ice by approximately 16,000 years ago. Vast areas along the coast may have been deglaciated beginning around 16,000 years ago, possibly providing a coastal corridor for the movement of plants, animals, and humans sometime between 13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

7. The author's purpose in paragraph 4 is to

○indicate that a number of recent geologic studies seem to provide support for the coastal hypothesis

○indicate that coastal and inland migrations may have happened simultaneously

○explain why humans may have reached America's northwest coast before animals and plants did

○show that the coastal hypothesis may explain how people first reached Alaska but it cannot explain how people reached areas like modern British Columbia and Washington State

8. The word “Vast” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○Frozen

○Various

○Isolated

○Huge

Paragraph 5: The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the time period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supporting breeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to support humans. Fladmark and other believe that the first human colonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the very late Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologic evidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-free regions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea level between13,000 and 14,000 years ago.

9. According to paragraph 5, the discovery of the remains of large land animals supports the coastal hypothesis by providing evidence that

○humans were changing their hunting techniques to adapt to coastal rather than inland environments

○animals had migrated from the inland to the coasts, an indication that a midcontinental ice-free corridor was actually implausible

○humans probably would have been able to find enough resources along the coastal corridor

○the continental shelf was still exposed by lower sea levels during the period when the southward migration of people began

10. The word “inhospitable” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○not familiar

○not suitable

○not dangerous

○not reachable

11. According to paragraph 5, the most recent geologic research provides support for a first colonization of America dating as far back as

○16,000 years ago

○14,000 years ago

○12,500 years ago

○10,000 years ago

Paragraph 6: The coastal hypothesis suggests an economy based on marine mammal hunting, saltwater fishing gathering, and the use of watercraft. Because of the barrier of ice to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and populated areas to the north, there may have been a greater impetus for people to move in a southerly direction.

12. The word “impetus” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○chance

○protection

○possibility

○incentive

Paragraph 1: It has long been accepted that the Americas were colonized by a migration of peoples from Asia, slowly traveling across a land bridge called Beringia (now the Bering Strait between northeastern Asia and Alaska) during the last Ice Age. ■The first water craft theory about the migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers. It was the midcontinental corridor between two massive ice sheets-the Laurentide to the west-that enabled the southward migration. ■But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect. ■He persuasively argued that such an ice-free corridor did not exist until much later, when the continental ice began its final retreat. ■

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Moreover, other evidence suggests that even if an ice-free corridor did exist, it would have lacked the resources needed for human colonization.

Where could the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Recent evidence favors a rival to the long-standing theory that the Americas were colonized 11,000-12,000 years ago by people migrating south from Beringia along a midcontinental ice-free corridor.

Answer Choices

○Evidence that an ice-free corridor between two ice sheets developed when the continental ice first began to melt came primarily from radiocarbon dating.

○There is growing support for the theory that migration took place much earlier, by sea, following a coastal route along Alaska and down the northwest coast.

○Recent geologic evidence indicates that contrary to what had been believed, substantial areas along the coast were free of ice as early as 16,000 years ago.

○Research now indicates that the parts of the inner continental shelf that remained covered with ice were colonized by a variety of early human groups well adapted to living in extremely cold environments.

○There is evidence suggesting that areas along the coast may have contained enough food resources between 13,000 and 14,000 years ago to have made human colonization possible.

○Even though the northern part of the continent allowed for a more varied economy, several early human groups quickly moved south.

 

参考答案:

1. ○2

2. ○3

3. ○4

4. ○1

5. ○1

6. ○3

7. ○1

8.○4

9. ○3

10. ○2

11. ○2

12. ○4

13. ○4

14. There is growing support…

Recent geologic evidence…

There is evidence suggesting…

Reflection in Teaching

Teachers, it is thought, benefit from the practice of reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. Educators T. Wildman and J. Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching.

Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish–a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy.” The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent, manner.

Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding in the teachers with whom they were working as being “utilitarian … and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection.” Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation.

Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. This process took time and patience and effective trainers. The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”

The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession’s cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into practice the ideas of theirs. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work (Jaworski, 1993) and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect – for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit.

Paragraph 1: Teachers, it is thought, benefit from the practice of reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. Educators T. Wildman and J. Niles (1987) describe a scheme for developing reflective practice in experienced teachers. This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching.

1. The word “justified” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○supported

○shaped

○stimulated

○suggested

2. According to paragraph 1, it was believed that reflection could help teachers

○understand intellectual principles of teaching

○strengthen their intellectual connection to their work

○use scientific fact to improve discipline and teaching

○adopt a more disciplined approach to teaching

Paragraph 2: Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish–a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. There were concerned that many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy.” The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent, manner.

3. The word “flourish” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○continue

○occur

○succeed

○apply

4. All of the following are mentioned about the experimental strategy described in paragraph 2 EXCEPT:

○It was designed so that teachers would eventually reflect without help from others.

○It was used by a group of teachers over a period of years.

○It involved having teachers take part in discussions of classroom events.

○It involved having teachers record in writing their reflections about teaching.

5. According to paragraph 2, Wildman and Niles worried that the teachers they were working with might feel that

○the number of teachers involved in their program was too large

○the concepts of teacher reflection were so abstract that they could not be applied

○the ideas involved in reflection were actually not new and refreshing

○several years would be needed to acquire the habit of reflecting on their teaching

Paragraph 3: Wildman and Niles observed that systematic reflection on teaching required a sound ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. They describe the initial understanding in the teachers with whom they were working as being “utilitarian … and not rich or detailed enough to drive systematic reflection.” Teachers rarely have the time or opportunities to view their own or the teaching of others in an objective manner. Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation.

6. The word “objective” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○unbiased

○positive

○systematic

○thorough

7. According to paragraph 3, what did the teachers working with Wildman and Niles often fail to do when they attempted to practice reflection?

○Correctly calculate the amount of time needed for reflection.

○Provide sufficiently detailed descriptions of the methods they used to help them reflect.

○Examine thoughtfully the possible causes of events in their classrooms.

○Establish realistic goals for themselves in practicing reflection.

Paragraph 4: Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. This process took time and patience and effective trainers. The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

8. How is paragraph 4 related to other aspects of the discussion of reflection in the passage?

○It describes and comments on steps taken to overcome problems identified earlier in the passage.

○It challenges the earlier claim that teachers rarely have the time to think about their own or others' teaching.

○It identifies advantages gained by teachers who followed the training program described earlier in the passage.

○It explains the process used to define the principles discussed later in the passage.

Paragraph 5: Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”

9. The word “compelling” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○commonly held

○persuasive

○original

○practical

Paragraph 6: The work of Wildman and Niles suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties of instituting reflective practice. Others have noted this, making a similar point about the teaching profession’s cultural inhibitions about reflective practice. Zeichner and Liston (1987) point out the inconsistency between the role of the teacher as a (reflective) professional decision maker and the more usual role of the teacher as a technician, putting into practice the ideas of theirs. More basic than the cultural issues is the matter of motivation. Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work (Jaworski, 1993) and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability. Few have directly questioned what might lead a teacher to want to become reflective. Apparently, the most obvious reason for teachers to work toward reflective practice is that teacher educators think it is a good thing. There appear to be many unexplored matters about the motivation to reflect – for example, the value of externally motivated reflection as opposed to that of teachers who might reflect by habit.

10. According to paragraph 6, teachers may be discouraged from reflecting because

○it is not generally supported by teacher educators

○the benefits of reflection may not be apparent immediately

○it is impossible to teach and reflect on one's teaching at the same time

○they have often failed in their attempts to become reflective practitioners

11. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information

○The practice of being reflective is no longer simply a habit among teachers but something that is externally motivated.

○Most teachers need to explore ways to form the habit of reflection even when no external motivation exists.

○Many aspects of the motivation to reflect have not been studied, including the comparative benefits of externally motivated and habitual reflection among teachers.

○There has not been enough exploration of why teachers practice reflection as a habit with or without external motivation.

Paragraph 4: Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. ■This process took time and patience and effective trainers. ■The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

Paragraph 5: ■Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. ■The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”

12. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

However, changing teachers’ thinking about reflection will not succeed unless there is support for reflection in the teaching environment.

Where could the sentence best fit?

13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Wildman and Niles have conducted research on reflection in teaching

Answer Choices

○Through their work with Virginia teachers, Wildman and Niles proved conclusively that reflection, though difficult, benefits both teachers and students.

○Wildman and Niles found that considerable training and practice are required to understand classroom events and develop the skills involved in reflection.

○Wildman and Niles identified three principles that teachers can use to help themselves cope with problems that may arise as a result of reflection.

○Wildman and Niles concluded that teachers need sufficient resources as well as the cooperation and encouragement of others to practice reflection.

○There are numerous obstacles to implementing reflection in schools and insufficient understanding of why teachers might want to reflect.

○Whether teachers can overcome the difficulties involved in reflection may depend on the nature and intensity of their motivation to reflect.

 

参考答案:

1. ○1

2. ○2

3. ○3

4. ○4

5. ○2

6. ○1

7. ○3

8.○1

9. ○2

10. ○2

11. ○3

12. ○3

13. Wildman and Niles found that

Wildman and Niles concluded that

There are numerous obstacles to

The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii

When the Hawaiian Islands emerged from the sea as volcanoes, starting about five million years ago, they were far removed from other landmasses. Then, as blazing sunshine alternated with drenching rains, the harsh, barren surfaces of the black rocks slowly began to soften. Winds brought a variety of life-forms.

Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks. A few of these spores found a toehold on the dark, forbidding rocks and grew and began to work their transformation upon the land. Lichens were probably the first successful flora. These are not single individual plants; each one is a symbiotic combination of an alga and a fungus. The algae capture the sun's energy by photosynthesis and store it in organic molecules. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living things that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.

Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.

Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard–like the shell of a nut–for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

Plants with large, buoyant seeds—like coconuts—drift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater when they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats soften. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun.

By means of these seeds, plants spread more widely to new locations, even to isolated islands like the Hawaiian archipelago, which lies more than 2,000 miles west of California and 3,500 miles east of Japan. The seeds of grasses, flowers, and blooming trees made the long trips to these islands. (Grasses are simple forms of angiosperms that bear their encapsulated seeds on long stalks.) In a surprisingly short time, angiosperms filled many of the land areas on Hawaii that had been bare.

Paragraph 2: Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks. A few of these spores found a toehold on the dark, forbidding rocks and grew and began to work their transformation upon the land. Lichens were probably the first successful flora. These are not single individual plants; each one is a symbiotic combination of an alga and a fungus. The algae capture the sun's energy by photosynthesis and store it in organic molecules. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living thing that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.

1. The phrase “at random” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○finally

○over a long period of time

○successfully

○without a definite pattern

2. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the fungi in lichens benefit from their symbiotic relationship with algae in what way?

○The algae help the fungi meet some of their energy needs.

○The algae protect the fungi from the Sun's radiation.

○The algae provide the fungi with greater space for absorbing water.

○The fungi produce less waste in the presence of algae.

3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

○Some of the earliest important examples of symbiosis—the close cooperation of two or more living things—occur in island communities.

○Symbiosis—the close cooperation of pairs or small groups of living organisms—is especially important in these island environments.

○The first organisms on these islands worked together closely in a relationship known as symbiosis, which is particularly important on islands.

○It is significant to note that organisms in the beginning stages of the development of island life cannot survive without close cooperation.

Paragraph 3: Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.

4. The word “abundantly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○occasionally

○plentifully

○usefully

○fortunately

5. The word “propagate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○multiply

○emerge

○live

○evolve

6. According to paragraph 3, what was the relationship between lichens and ferns in the development of plant life on Hawaii?

○Ferns were able to grow because lichens created suitable soil.

○The decomposition of ferns produced minerals that were used by lichens.

○Lichens and ferns competed to grow in the same rocky environments.

○Lichens and ferns were typically found together in volcanic areas.

Paragraph 4: Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard–like the shell of a nut–for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

7. The word “This” in the passage refers to

○the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii

○the creation of the Hawaiian Islands

○the evolution of ferns

○the development of plants that produce seeds

8. According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do? To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices.

○Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant than spores do.

○Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients.

○Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers than spores are.

○Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likely to take root and grow.

9. Why does the author mention “a nut”, “a peach”, and “a cherry”?

○To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survive than others

○To point out that many angiosperms can be eaten

○To provide examples of blooming plants

○To illustrate the variety of coverings among angiosperm seeds

10. The word “dormant” in the passage is closest in meaning to

○hidden

○inactive

○underground

○preserved

Paragraph5: Plants with large, buoyant seeds—like coconuts—drift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater when they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats soften. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun.

11. According to paragraph 5, a major reason that coconuts can establish themselves in distant locations is that their seeds can

○survive long exposure to heat on island beaches

○float and survive for long periods in ocean water

○use saltwater for maintenance and growth

○maintain hard, protective coats even after growing roots

12. According to the passage, which of the following characteristics do spores and seeds have in common?

○They may be surrounded by several layers of covering.

○They are produced by flowering plants.

○They may be spread by wind.

○They are able to grow in barren soils.

Paragraph 3: Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. ■These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. ■Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. ■Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. ■But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

So since the chances of survival for any individual spore are small, the plants have to produce many spores in order to propagate.

Where could the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

After the formation of the Hawaiian Islands, much time passed before conditions were suitable for plant life.

Answers Choices

○Algae are classified as symbiotic because they produce energy through the process of photosynthesis.

○The first successful plants on Hawaii were probably lichens, which consist of algae and fungi living in a symbiotic relationship.

○Lichens helped create favorable conditions for the growth of spore-producing plants such as ferns and mosses.

○Seed-bearing plants evolved much later than spore-producing plants, but both types of plants had evolved well before the formation of the Hawaiian Islands.

○Unlike spores, seeds must move to new habitats in order to have a strong chance of survival and growth.

○Seed-bearing plants arrived and spread quickly in Hawaii, thanks to characteristics that increased their seeds’ ability to survive and to move to different areas.

参考答案:

1. ○4

2. ○1

3. ○3

4. ○2

5. ○1

6. ○1

7. ○4

8. ○2, 3

9. ○4

10. ○2

11. ○2

12. ○3

13. ○2

14. The first successful plants…

Lichens helped create favorable…

Seed-bearing plants arrived…

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