欢迎来到上海新航道官网!英语高能高分,就上新航道!

4008-125-888

托福TPO综合写作33文本及PDF下载

2016年05月11日 04:30来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:

托福TPO综合写作33文本及PDF下载

托福TPO33综合写作 Reading Part:

Carved stone balls are a curious type of artifact found at a number of |locations in Scotland. They date from the late Neolithic period, around 4,000 years ago. They are round in shape; they were carved from several types of stone; most are about 70 mm in diameter; and many are ornamented to some degree. Archaeologists do not agree about their purpose and meaning, but there are several theories.

One theory is that the carved stone balls were weapons used in hunting or fighting. Some of the stone balls have been found with holes in them, and many have grooves on the surface. It is possible that a cord was strung through the holes or laid in the grooves around the ball. Holding the stone balls at the end of the cord would have allowed a person to swing it around or throw it.

A second theory is that the carved stone balls were used as part of a primitive system of weights and measures. The fact that they are so nearly uniform in size - at 70 mm in diameter-suggests that the balls were interchangeable and represented some standard unit of measure. They could have been used as standard weights to measure quantities of grain or other food, or anything that needed to be measured by weight on a balance or scale for the purpose of trade.

A third theory is that the carved stone balls served a social purpose as opposed to a practical or utilitarian one. This view is supported by the fact that many stone balls have elaborate designs.

The elaborate carving suggests that the stones may have marked the important social status of their owners.

 

托福TPO33综合写作 Listening Part

None of the three theories presented in the reading passage are very convincing.

First, the stone balls as hunting weapons, common Neolithic weapons such as arrowheads and hand axes generally show signs of wear, so we should expect that if the stone balls had been used as weapons for hunting of fighting, they too would show signs of that use. Many of the stone balls would be cracked or have pieces broken off. However, the surfaces of the balls are generally well preserved, showing little or no wear or damage.

Second, the carved stone balls maybe remarkably uniform in size, but their masses vary too considerably to have been used as uniform weights. This is because the stone balls were made of different types of stone including sandstone, green stone and quartzite. Each type of stone has a different density. Some types of stone are heavier than others just as a handful of feathers weighs less than a handful of rocks. Two balls of the same size are different weights depending on the type of stone they are made of. Therefore, the balls could not have been used as a primitive weighing system.

Third, it's unlikely that the main purpose of the balls was as some kind of social marker. A couple of facts are inconsistent with this theory. For one thing, while some of the balls are carved with intricate patterns, many others have markings that are extremely simple, too simple to make the balls look like status symbols. Furthermore, we know that in Neolithic Britain, when someone died, particularly a high-ranking person, they were usually buried with their possessions. However, none of the carved stone balls have been actually found in tombs or graves. That makes it unlikely that the balls were personal possessions that marked a person's status within the community.

 

更多托福TPO写作 查看,请移步:http://sh.xhd.cn/toefl/tpoxiezuo/

想要下载托福TPO1-33综合写作 的同学,请提交“姓名+电话+邮箱”,我们将于15个小时内发送给您!

请加sunny老师(微信号:shnc_2018

百人留学备考群,名师答疑,助教监督,分享最新资讯,领取独家资料。扫码免费加入

免费资料领取

免责声明
1、如转载本网原创文章,请表明出处;
2、本网转载媒体稿件旨在传播更多有益信息,并不代表同意该观点,本网不承担稿件侵权行为的连带责任;
3、如本网转载稿、资料分享涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后速与新航道联系(电话:021-64380066),我们会第一时间删除。

免费在线模考

姓名:

电话:

立即测试

制作:每每

  • 徐汇校区
  • 人广校区
  • 地址:徐汇区裕德路126路

    乘车路线:地铁1、4号线上海体育馆、3号9号线宜山路站、11号线上海游泳馆站

  • 地址:黄浦区南京西路338号天安中心22楼

    乘车路线:地铁1、2、8号线人民广场站

  • 微信公众号
  • 微信社群