托福TPO29综合写作 Reading Part:
Large numbers of dinosaur fossils have been discovered in deposits on Alaska's North Slope, a region that today experiences an extremely cold, arctic climate. One hundred million years ago, when those dinosaurs were alive, the environment of the North Slope was already inhospitable, especially during the winter when it experienced several months of total darkness. How did the dinosaurs survive the wintertime? Paleontologists have proposed that one of the most common North Slope dinosaurs, the elephant-sized edmontosaur (Edmontosaurus), survived the winter by migrating south to more hospitable regions. Several arguments support the migration hypothesis.
First, the edmontosaur's diet supports the migration hypothesis. Edmontosaurs fed exclusively on plants. Since there would have been no plants growing during the cold and dark North Slope winter, it appears that the edmontosaur must have left for at least part of the year and migrated to more temperate zones to find food.
Second, many edmontosaur skeletons have been unearthed from the same site. This suggests that edmontosaurs lived in herd. Many modern-day migratory animals, such as caribou and buffalo, live and migrate in herds as well. Moving in herds helps animals coordinate their migration. The finding that edmonotsaurs lived in herds further supports the migration hypothesis.
Finally, edmonosaurs were physically capable of migrating long distances. To reach more hospitable regions, the edmontosaur had to migrate about 1,600 kilometers southward. To make such a journey, the edmontosaur needed to move at about five kilometers per hour for several weeks, which is certainly could do. These animals could run very fast, reaching speeds up to 45 kilometers per hour. It could have easily used its locomotive power to move to warmer climate during the harsh arctic winters.
托福TPO29综合写作 Listening Part:
The hypothesis that the edmontosaur migrated every winter is not convincing.
First, the edmontosaur did not have to migrate to find food. One hundred million years ago the summer temperatures in the North Slope area were warmer than they are today. And remember in arctic regions like the North Slope the sun shines 24 hours a day at the peak of the summer, the warm temperatures and the extensive daylight created incredibly good growing conditions for plants, so much vegetation was produced during the summer that when the vegetation died as the winter came, there was a lot of nutritious dead vegetation around in the winter. The edmontosaur could have easily lived on the dead plant matter during in the winter.
Second, just because edmontosaur lived in herds doesn’t mean they migrated. Animals lived in herds for many other reasons. Living in herds, for example, provides animals extra protection from predators. Having extra protection is useful even for the animals that live in the same area the whole year round. A modern example of this is the Roosevelt elk, a large plant-eater. Roosevelt elks live in the forests of western United States, they live in herds, but they do not migrate.
Third, although adult edmontosaur were capable of migrating in long distances. What about edmontosaur that were not yet adults, juvenile edmontosaur were not physically capable of travelling in great distances required to reach warmer territories and would have slowed the herds so much that the herd never would have made to its destination. The herd could not have left the juveniles behind because the juveniles would not have survived on their own. So the whole herd had to stay where they were and survive on the cold North Slope.
Summarize the point made in the lecture, being sure to explain how the cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
In the reading passage, the writer claim that edmontosaurus had to migrate to hospitable places in the south, if they want to survive in the cold weather. The speaker, however, contradicts this view for the following three reasons.
First of all, the reading materials points out that it is difficult that edmontosaurus to find food in cold winter because of they were fed on plants exclusively. But the speaker reputes that warm weather in summer supplied perfect condition for plants to grow. So edmontosaurus might found lots of nutritious dead vegetation around in the winter, which made migration unnecessary.
Second, unearthed skeletons from the same site indicated that edmontosaurus lived in herds. Living in herds made migration much easy. But the lecture gave an example of Roosevelt elks to prove that group living might have various types of reasons. So edmontosaurus may live in herds in order to seek for extra protection. So living in herds could not provide evidence for migration claim.
Lastly, edmontosaurus, in view of the writer, had the ability of long-distance movement. Although the lecturer admitted the locomotive capability of edmontosaurus, he points out that juvenile edmontosaurus were lack of such ability. So the herd would not leave juneniles behind in the North Slope, which strongly reputes the author’s claim.