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SAT2化学考前必背知识

2019年10月09日 02:23来源:互联网作者:上海管理员

摘要:SAT2化学考前必背知识,很多同学苦于化学有很多专业名词不认识,实验设备不熟悉,周期表规律不明确等问题。时间短,任务重!!!上海新航道SAT培训班为大家整理了SAT2化学中部分核心必背知识,希望对大家高效备考有所帮助。

SAT2化学考前必背知识,很多同学苦于化学有很多专业名词不认识,实验设备不熟悉,周期表规律不明确等问题。时间短,任务重!!!上海新航道SAT培训班为大家整理了SAT2化学中部分核心必背知识,希望对大家高效备考有所帮助。

一.常见元素的名称

H: hydrogen [ˈhaidrədʒən]

He: helium ['hi:liəm]

Li: lithium ['liθiəm

Be: beryllium [be'riliəm]

B: boron ['bɔ:rɔn]

C: carbon [ˈkɑ:bən]

N: nitrogen [ˈnaitrədʒən]

O: oxygen [ˈɔksidʒən]

F: fluorine ['fluəri:n]

Ne: neon [ˈni:ɔn ˈni:ən]

Na: sodium ['səudiəm]

Mg: magnesium [mægˈni:ziəm]

Al: aluminum [ˈæljuˈminiəm]

Si: silicon [ˈsilikən]

P: phosphorus ['fɔsfərəs]

S: sulfur [ ['sʌlfə]

Cl: chlorine ['klɔ:ri:n]

Ar: argon ['ɑ:gɔn]

Ca: calcium [ˈkælsiəm]

Rb: rubidium [ru:'bidiəm]

K: potassium [pə'tæsiəm]

Br: bromine ['brəumi:n]

I: iodine [ˈaiədi:n]

Ba: barium ['bɛəriəm]

Fe : iron ['aiən]

Mn : manganese [ˈmæŋgə'ni:z]

Cu: copper [ˈkɔpə]

Zn: zinc [ziŋk]

Hg: mercury [ˈmə:kjuri]

Ag: silver [ˈsilvə]

Au: gold [gəuld]

Pt: platinum ['plætinəm]

二.酸的命名二元无氧酸的命名

以H作为阳离子,在成酸元素前加 Hydro, 成酸元素之后改“–ic”,再加 acid。

举例H2S:Hydrosulfuric acid

含氧酸与含氧酸根阴离子的命名

高某酸 per-ic

高某酸根 per-ate

正酸 –ic

正酸根 –ate

亚酸 –ous

亚酸根 -ite

次酸 hypo-ous

次酸根hypo-ite

过酸 peroxy;

举例:

HClO4 perchloric acid (高氯酸)

ClO4- perchlorate ion

HClO3 chloric acid (氯酸)

ClO3- chlorate ion

HClO2 chlorous acid (亚氯酸)

ClO2- chlorite ion

HClO hypochlorous acid (次氯酸)

ClO- hypochlorite ion

3. 常见沉淀

四种盐沉淀:

AgCl, BaSO4, BaCO3, CaCO3,

四种碱沉淀:

Al(OH)3,Cu(OH)2,Fe(OH)3,Mg(OH)2

其中Cu(OH)2是蓝色沉淀,Fe(OH)3是红色沉淀

AgCl,BaSO4不与任何物质反应,其余与酸反应

百试不爽小口诀:钾钠铵盐都可溶,硝盐入水影无踪,盐酸不溶银亚汞,硫酸不溶钡和铅,碳酸磷酸多不溶

4. 原子结构发展史


 

5.分子几何构型和杂化轨道

 

6.常用化学仪器的名称和作用

Asbestosed wire gauze(石棉网): Generally used as a surface for a beaker or flask to rest when being heated by a Bunsen burner

Balance: Used for obtaining the masses of solid and liquid samples

Beaker(烧杯): A flat-bottomed, cylindrical piece of glassware used for mixing and heating compounds

Bunsen burner(煤气喷灯): Attached to a gas line and lit to provide heat for your experiments

Buret(滴定管): An extremely accurate device with a stopcock at the bottom used to measure volumes of reagents

Ceramic square: Used to avoid burning the surface of your lab bench and incurring your chemistry teacher's wrath

Clamps: Used to hold a variety of things in place, particularly test tubes

Clay triangle(陶制三角架): Used to hold a crucible while it is being heated

Condenser(冷凝器): Used to collect vapors by condensing them into liquid as they contact the liquid-cooled inner surface of the condenser

Crucible(坩埚): A cup-shaped container capable of sustaining high temperatures. It is used to heat chemicals.

Crucible tongs(坩埚钳):Used to handle the hot crucible

Erlenmeyer flask(锥形瓶):Used to hold liquids, especially no heating needed. The small upper opening slows evaporation, so for some volatile liquids, a flask is  a better choice than a beaker. The shape also makes it suitable for mixing and swirling liquids during a titration.

Florence flask(圆底烧瓶): A type of flask, generally round-bottomed, usually suspended and heated from below (need wire gauze). Its shape makes it easy to swirl and mix liquids inside of it.

Funnel(漏斗): Used together with filter paper to filter precipitates out of solutions

Graduated cylinder(量筒): Used to precisely measure volumes

Mortar and pestle(研钵及研杵): Used to grind chemical compounds for chemistry experiments

Pipette(移液管): Used to transfer accurately measured amounts of liquid from one container to another

Pneumatic trough (集气槽): Used to collect gas that is insoluble in water

Rubber stoppers(橡皮塞): Used to close flasks or test tubes to prevent evaporation of liquids or escape of gases

Scoopula(抹刀勺): Another instrument used to transfer solids from one place to another

Test tube(试管): Cylindrical open-topped piece of glassware that comes in varying sizes

Thermometer(温度计):Used to measure temperatures. Thermometers generally contain liquid mercury.

Volumetric flask: A volumetric flask (measuring flask or graduated flask) is a piece of laboratory glassware, a type of laboratory flask, calibrated to contain a precise volume at a particular temperature.

Volumetric pipette: A volumetric pipette or bulb pipette allows extremely accurate measurement (to four significant figures) a volume of solution. It is caliberated to deliver accurately fixed volume of dilute appearing solution such as standard,caliberated or a non viscous sample.

Watch glass(表面皿): A piece of glassware in the shape of a large contact lens used for evaporating liquids


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