ratify V. /批准，认可/approve formally; confirm; verify. Party leaders doubted that they had enough votes in both houses of Congress to ratify the constitutional amendment.
ratiocination N. /推理;推论/reasoning; act of drawing conclusions from premises. While Watson was a man of average intelligence, Holmes was a genius, whose gift for ratiocination made him a superb detective.
rationale N. /基础科学;基本原理/fundamental reason or justification; grounds for an action. Her need to have someplace to hang her earring collection was Dora's rationale for piercing fifteen holes in each ear.
rationalize V. /合理化/give a plausible reason for an action in place of a true, less admirable one; offer an excuse. When David told gabby Gabrielle he couldn't give her a ride to the dance because he had no room in the car, he was rationalizing; actually, he couldn't stand being cooped up in a car with anyone who talked as much as she did.
raucous ADJ. /沙哑的/harsh and shrill; disorderly and boisterous. The raucous crowd of New Year's Eve revelers got progressively noisier as midnight drew near.
rave N. /咆哮/overwhelmingly favorable review. Though critic John Simon seldom has a good word to say about most contemporary plays, his review of All in the Timing was a total rave.
ravel V. /使混乱;解开混乱，解决混乱/fall apart into tangles; unravel or untwist; entangle. A single thread pulled loose, and the entire scarf started to ravel.
ravenous ADJ. /饥饿的/extremely hungry. The ravenous dog upset several garbage pails in its search for food.
raze V. /彻底摧毁/destroy completely. Spelling is important: to raise a building is to put it up; to raze a building is to tear it down.
reactionary ADJ. /反作用的/recoiling from progress; politically ultraconservative. Opposing the use of English in worship services, reactionary forces in the church fought to reinstate the mass in Latin.
realm N. /领域/kingdom; field or sphere. In the animal realm, the lion is the king of beasts.
reaper N. /收割者;收割机/one who harvests grain. Death, the Grim Reaper, cuts down mortal men and women, just as a farmer cuts down the ripened grain. reap,V.
rebuff V. /回绝/snub; beat back. She rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realize he had been snubbed. also N.
rebuke V. /严厉批评;猛烈的训斥/scold harshly; criticize severely. No matter how sharply Miss Watson rebuked Huck for his misconduct, he never talked back but just stood there like a stump. also N.
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